The reasoning of Averroes is significant when it speaks of Islamic heritage. In his attempt to reach out to other fields of sciences what religion has done, can take in some topics primarily in the education area.
Political Science – Averroes likewise proclaimed that ladies were equivalent to men in all regards and had the same abilities to sparkle in peace and war, referring to cases of female warriors among the Greeks, Arabs, and Africans to back up his case.
Medicine – Averroes authored a medical reference book entitled Kulliyat referred to in its Latin interpretation as Colliget. He likewise made a collection of Galen’s works and composed an analysis of Avicenna’s the Canon of Medicine.
Physical Science – Averroes likewise wrote three books on physical science specifically: Short Commentary on the Physics, Middle Commentary on the Physics and Long Commentary on the Physics. The philosopher characterized and calculate force as “the rate at which work is done in changing the active state of a material body” and rightly contended “that the impact and measure of force change in the motor state of a tangibly resistant mass.” He took a specific and distinct fascination in the comprehension of “motor force.”
Astronomy – With regards to Averroes research in space science, he contended for an entirely concentric model of the universe, expounded on sunspots and logical analysis in regards to the infrequent opaque shades of the moon. He likewise wrote about spheres and its movement.
Brain science – Averroes additionally made a few pieces of research concerning Active and Passive intelligence, under the subjects of Psychology.
The concept of Music – Being an Arab music scholar, Averroes contribution to music was his interpretation of Aristotle’s On the Soul, where Averroes managed perspicuously with sound theory. Its content was translated into Latin by Michael Scot.
The happening that surrounds Averroes on the final days of his life indicated a more extensive social movement in the Islamic world. Enthusiasm for logic was mainly among the rich: scholars, sponsors, and government workers. However, its essence among the privileged showed a diversity of what it means being a “Muslim.” As enthusiasm for philosophy faded in the Muslim world after Averroes compositions discovered new life and scholarly force in creations by Christian and Jewish scholars.
There was an intellectual revival during the 12th – 13th century in the Latin West. Some top colleges being built up in France, Italy, and England. A gathering of scholars at the University of Paris identified themselves with the Aristotelian logic displayed by Averroes, especially specific components of its religion to religion. Recognized later as the “Averroists,” these Christian scholars started a contention inside the Roman Catholic Church about the inclusion of logic with religion. Averroists, their informers, charged, had supported the creed of one intellect for all people, rejecting a soul’s immortality, asserted that happiness could be found in this life and encouraged the creative precept of “double truth”. Double truth, the possibility that there are two types of fact, religious and philosophical, was not thought by Averroes himself but instead was a development of the Averroists.
Averroes promoted the practice of Greek reasoning in the Islamic world. His analyses expelled the neo-Platonic inclination of his predecessors. Disapproving al-Farabi’s endeavor to combine Plato and Aristotle’s thoughts, Averroes contended that Aristotle’s logic is different in many ways from Plato’s. Averroes discarded Avicenna’s Neoplatonism which was halfway given creations by neo-Platonic savants, Plotinus and Proclus, which were erroneously credited to Aristotle.
In metaphysics, or all the more precisely ontology, Averroes rejects the view progressed by Avicenna that presence is simply unintentional. Avicenna believes that “quintessence is ontologically preceding existence”. The incidental are properties which are not important, yet rather are extra unexpected attributes. Averroes, following Aristotle, believes that individual existing substances are essential. One may isolate them rationally; be that as it may, ontologically, presence and quintessence are one. According to Fakhry, this speaks to a change from Plato’s hypothesis of Ideas, where thoughts go before particulars, to Aristotle’s hypothesis where particulars come first, and the substance is “arrived at by a procedure of abstraction.”
Averroes gave clarified analyses on the majority of Aristotle’s works, defining and describing the hard and specialized mastermind such that others – including the more significant part of Western scholars – could all the more promptly draw in with his thoughts and improve them. He composed three various types of analysis on Aristotelian writings – a long one for researchers, and medium-length and shorter ones for the public. It was in these briefer analyses that Averroes communicated his particular feelings straightforwardly on the scope of philosophical and religious issues, yet in the long discourses, he attempted, effectively in general, to safeguard an impartial scholastic tone.
As expressed above, Averroes contended in his “Decisive Treatise” that it is worthy to learn about philosophy, Muslims are in actuality obliged to do as such, and they should dive into philosophical issues to discover appropriate answers for religious matters, particularly in light of the fact that scholars proved unable, without anyone else’s input, resolve such problems as how to decipher the Quran.
Averroes coherent contentions accommodated religion with reason, along these lines uniting religion and innovation and science, one of the vital ideological issues of the Middle East in the pre-present day until today. Regardless of whether the radical bearings in which his creation was taken spoken to his particular perspectives appears to be improbable. He did, in any case, build up the theory that religion and reason were several courses to a similar truth. In the social settings where religion was viewed as the significant course to reality, as in medieval Europe and, unfortunately in certain barely characterized contemporary radical fields, Averroes may appear to speak to a subversive vision. Truth be told, Averroes was a deist, regardless of whether he didn’t see the Greeks experts with doubt. As the Hanbali current made strides beginning in the tenth century, in any case, Averroes wished to keep away from pressures in relation to the more conservative components in society, with little achievement.
Better referred to in the West as Averroes, Abul Walid Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd, turned into an extraordinary Aristotelian in the Islam world. Dismissed by his own, Averroes modernized logic in Jewish Europe and Christian and was attributed with giving out a substantial impact on the development that introduced the European Renaissance.
Averroes has been a doctor, legal counselor, and scholar and, as indicated by his present biography writer Oliver Leaman, amid the time of Islamic government under the Almohad, “turned into an important political and legitimate figure in Cardoba, Spain, one thing that made his life challenging on occasion particularly the minute situation in politics changed.”
Averroes was deported more than once, including to Northern Africa toward the last years of his existence, as to precisely why remains a puzzle. His long and satisfying life was completed by the affirmation of a considerable load of his commitments in understanding Aristotle, a standout amongst the most, if not the most, significant establishing figure in Western logic.
It is vital to take note of that under two decades prior to when he was born, the immense faultfinder of Islamic theory, Al Ghazali (1058-1111), passed away in the wake of striking a close deadly knock on Muslim scholars, for example, Ibn Sina, who embraced Platonism.
In any case, Spanish-Muslim logicians, of whom the law specialist and doctor Averroes came to be viewed as the last and most compelling, included noteworthy esteem. The Cardoban disdained the shallow dispute then in vogue among scholars that logicians were outside the fold of Islam, mainly since no backup proof could be distinguished in the Quran to prove such statements.
Ibn Rushd has put on the emphasis that it was conceivable to get the truth by means of philosophy and that its investigation ought not to be restricted. Typically, such a stand required, to the point that he challenge Asharite, Sufi, Mu’tazilite, and “literalist” originations of God’s features and activities – all of which he set out upon with fearlessness taking note of the philosophical issues that emerged out of their understandings from brief happenings.
He showed the benefit of uncovering the more profound implications of customs by drawing in with religion basically and insightfully. Just such a method, he accepted, could wipe out degenerate perceptions of the divine.
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A standout amongst the most famous Andalusian thinkers of the Middle Ages, Ibn Rushd also called as Averroes had made huge influence to the fields of philosophy, astrophysics, health, law, brain research, geology, and physics. Since his youth, he had a slant towards procuring information on different points which established the framework for his skill on an immense scope of studies. He started ‘Averroism’, a school of reasoning and trusted that as opposed to well-known conclusion religion and theory are the two ideas that guide in the man’s journey of salvation. Although religion was implied for everybody, the reasoning was selective to the individuals who had a more noteworthy judgment. He extracted similar views with Greek logician Aristotle’s conviction. A few of his popular works were analyses on Politics & Republics of Aristotle. He was condemned for his perspectives on faith and a significant number of his pieces were prohibited and not allowed in Marrakesh, Morocco. In spite of these, he was very respected among his associates and the literary works of Dante & James Joyce has gone on about this exceptional polymath.
Conceived in Córdoba, Spain on 14th of April 1126, young Averroes got training from the best educators in topics extending from religious philosophy & Hadith to etymology and law. Considering medicine, he studied under the guidance of Abu Jafar ibn Harun al-Turjali.
Abu Al-Walid Muhammad is the grandfather of Averroes. His father is Abu Al-Qasim, both of whom were experts of law under the Berber administration of Almoravids.
He began his profession in the court of Abu Yaqub Yusuf. The ruler was a fan of science and logic and Ibn Zuhr who was a prestigious specialist was the court doctor. Averroes got to know Ibn Zuhr and guided him.
His ability in the area of health was realized when he distributed ‘Kitab al-Kulyat fi al-Tibb’.
Averroes first wrote an editorial on the works of the Greek philosopher, Aristotle at the court of Abu Yaqub. His musings on religion and theory were additionally shaped by scholar Ibn Bajjah.
Devoted to readings of different theoretical works that proceeded for the following 3 decades, he built up a school of thought that was named ‘Averroism’.
In 1160, he was designated as judge of Seville region where Averroes put on the duty in numerous different courts for the duration of his life.
His assemblage of portfolio included many articles on issues going from reasoning, religious philosophy, grammar, health, and law but is most well known his interpretations of Aristotle’s work specifically ‘The Republic’.
Aside from examining and interpreting Aristotle’s philosophical works, he wrote his own perspectives on logic in a broad collection entitled ‘The Incoherence of the Incoherence’. His other compositions on reasoning are ‘Fasl al-Maqal fi mama bayn al-Hikma wa al-Shariah min Ittisal’ and ‘Kitab al-Kashf a Manahij al-Adilla’.
The famous doctor created ‘Kulliyat’, which contained his broad understanding of gen. medicine.
Averroes was the first to suggest the idea of ‘inertia’ and he explained the power as “the rate at which work is done in changing the kinetic state of a material body”. He additionally clarified that the wonder behind rainbow arrangement is refraction and not a reflection as was famously accepted.
Studying law he composed a few books including ‘The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer’.
He wrote critiques for every one of Aristotle’s piece with the specific examination of per sentences. When he was not able to locate Aristotle’s work on legislative issues he swung to Plato. Averroes’ trusted numerous thoughts advocated by Plato like women equality.
His perspectives, that philosophy and religion are distinct ways to the same end, got negative feedback from the orthodox caliphate and a few of his works were scorched. From 1995-97, he was taboo to lecture his belief systems and enter Marrakesh.
Averroes most popular piece is the philosophy book titled ‘The Incoherence of the Incoherence’. This was his most imperative composition that resuscitated the Aristotelian rationality in the West, amid the twelfth and thirteenth century and a counter on Al-Ghazali’s work ‘The Incoherence of the Philosophers’ that condemned ‘Aristotelianism’.
Life and Legacy:
The prominent scholar confronted feedback for his perspectives on logic and religion from the individuals from ‘Asharite’ school of Islamic philosophy. Averroes’ creation was scorched and was prohibited by the caliphate to get into the city of Marrakesh, Morocco. But the year prior to his demise, the court order was lifted.
Averroes passed away on 10th of December 1198 in Marrakech and left the legacy of ‘Averroism’.
In 1997, a movie entitled ‘Fate’ directed by Youssef Chahine depicted the tale of Ibn Rushd in his film.
More than 10 years after the Kingdom of Morocco pulled out its ambassador from Pretoria, South Africa, Morocco and Southern Africa will resume diplomatic ties, announced South African President Jacob Zuma.
The kingdom recalled its 2004 ambassador from South Africa when then South Africa President Thabo Mbeki recognized a breakaway region in West Sahara where Morocco claims as part of its territory.
President Zuma stated that Morocco is an African nation and the need to have relations with the country. In fact, they never really had problems from their side because Morocco was the first to pullout diplomatic relations.
Zuma and King Mohammed VI met a week ago during the African Union-European Union summit.
During the meeting, Morocco expressed that even if there are different stand with regards to the subject of Western Sahara, both countries must have a pleasant relationship.
During President Zuma’s state of the nation address, he reaffirmed South Africa’s government position to support decolonization and self-determination for West Sahara.
Ever since 1975, the Kingdom of Morocco has taken control majority of Western Sahara’s phosphates and oil. In 1991, a ceasefire required a referendum on self-determination for Western Sahara, however, the vote did not happen.
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The Kingdom of Morocco received a warm welcome from the majority of African countries during the first plenary meeting of the 28th session of the African Union Summit conducted in the capital of Ethiopia.
African Commission president reported that 39 countries aired their support for Morocco’s comeback to the Union. The kingdom was welcomed enthusiastically by Africa as well as America and Europe.
Mr. Alpha Condé, President of Guinea and African Union President, paid tribute to Morocco’s King Mohammed VI after delivering a positive message to Africa. Condé stated that the king spoke with this heart at a period when Africa must take its destiny into its own hands.
Furthermore, the European Union also looks forward to cooperating with Morocco and the African Union to enhance EU’s developing collaboration with Africa. As key partners, regional partnership and integration are vital for stability, prosperity, and peace.
To the European Union, Morocco’s coming back to the African Union binds together the entire content of Africa within its regional organization.
Countries acknowledge King Mohammed VI’s solid leadership.
The U.S.A. applauds Morocco on returning to the African Union and salutes the king’s strong leadership. Pointing out that the kingdom’s solid leadership have made possible to get back to is place within the institutional family of the African continent.
The United States has expressed its belief that Morocco’s return to the African Union will get positive contributions to more political, economic and social integration in Africa and to the continent’s security and stability.
Likewise, Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda states that with Morocco’s unifying role, the return will tighten the African ranks, making it bigger and stronger. The kingdom is an asset that must put to good use to intensify their unity and solidarity.
Congo, France, and Spain also welcome the return. Romain Nadal, French Foreign Ministry spokesperson, said that France welcomes Morocco’s reunion with African Union, the kingdom’s rightful place.
As Morocco’s neighbor country, Spain expressed its immense satisfaction with the decision.
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The Kingdom of Morocco’s return to the African Union opens up a greater chance for trade with countries in Africa. Part of the advantages of the country’s return into AU is the collaboration of varied commercial industries with African nations, most of which are developing faster in comparison with European states.
Analysts state that even though steady growth in economic trade with Sub-Saharan nations has been observed in the past years, this trade nevertheless symbolize a tiny proportion of Morocco’s total foreign market.
The latest African policy of Morocco compensates for the failed union of the Maghreb (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, and Tunisia). Because of the continuing dispute on Western Sahara, the union has failed to sustain its assurance of developing the trade amongst 5 countries. It has been recalled the several trips made by the Moroccan King to some countries in Africa as well as the signed agreements and treaties of Morocco with several African nations from 2000.
Financial businesses like banks have multiplied across Africa, having been established in over twenty countries. Royal Air Maroc, Morocco’s national airline, is among Africa’s biggest commercial airline, with the city of Casablanca used as a transit spot of thousands of Sub Saharan Africans exploring throughout the continent.
The Kingdom has initiated a variety of remarkable political and business interests with their close African neighbors. Referring to analyst Liesl Louw-Vaudran of South Africa’s Institute of Security Studies, an international news release points out that Morocco’s advantage in relation to their return to AU is giving it more legality and influence to push on obtaining a government settlement with regards to West Sahara’s sovereignty issues.
Morocco and Africa’s economic collaboration will further advance the economic growth of the two countries gaining positive growth for their people respectively.
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The Kingdom of Morocco is the sole Maghreb nation that has long years of relations with Saharan African countries. It all began with the caravan routes that started from Morocco to reach black Africa.
The country has long been strongly committed to promoting peace and tolerance as evident in the presence of a variety of religious communities that have made Morocco their home.
Morocco king’s continuous yearly visits to African countries strengthened this economic partnership. Bilateral agreements between public and private sector were made which confirmed Morocco’s importance in Africa in developing the continent.
King Mohammed VI visits reinforce historical ties and collaboration projects in the fields of agriculture, tourism and trade have supported the demands of both populations.
Morocco’s strong desire to make South-South cooperation has been fully expressed by the king. For the past years, most of the country’s direct foreign investment of Morocco is in Africa. When the Ebola virus hit West Africa, Morocco was the only country to retain its airlines.
Launching fair and balanced economic relations took off in 3 stages. First is Morocco’s involvement in public businesses on varied projects connected to the improvement of basic infrastructures such as dams, roadworks, electricity, water management etc. Second, private companies got into service industry such as banking, mining etc with support from a dynamic financial stand. The present stage is manifested by the impulse of true economic strategy on regional integration in all aspect.
When this regional integration is realized, it will help open more opportunities and Africa’s potential to offer hope and improved lifestyle to its people. It will help the continent to back up and depend on its capacity by improving South-South partnerships and enabling the transfer of technology in common framework.
The Kingdom of Morocco has by now taken part in some initiatives in support of countries in Africa, which includes the debt deletion of some less developed countries and full exemption of customs duties of their product’s entry to Morocco’s market.
In its continuous efforts to solidify the cooperation with African partners, especially with West African Economic and Monetary Union and to abide to the Community of Sahel, Morocco is in negotiation for strategic partnership agreements which includes the continuous establishment of free trade areas with Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC).
These opportunities help direct foreign financing support on infrastructure projects in Africa while entrusting the management of these projects to Moroccan companies. Doing so further solidifies the economic relations of Morocco to other countries of the continent.
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Tangier, Morocco – A Muslim Traveler from the Middle Ages, Ibn Battuta was honored in his very own native city by local and international travel and culture communities.
Founded in 2015, The Moroccan Association of Ibn Battuta has successfully organized an international event that aims to promote the inspiring story of the young traveler who journeyed the world for 30 years. The International Festival of Ibn Battuta which took place from November 9 to 12, 2017 has effectively stimulated the cultural and literary value presented by Ibn Battuta himself throughout his travels.
Organized by groups of young local and international volunteers, the 4-day event also highlighted one of the association’s primary objective of promoting the universal values of peace and tolerance realized through the spirit of volunteering. Students, professionals, artists, speakers who believed in the mission set by the founder of the Moroccan Association of Ibn Battuta Aziz Benami and Honorary President Mohamed Dekkak had united and worked together to achieve an engaging event.
The festival’s opening day took place at the Cultural Center of Ahmed Boukmakh. Hosted by Egypt’s famous TV personality Tamer Shaltout, the ceremony was attended by ambassadors, government leaders and business professionals from different industries. Horses, camels, motorbikes, cultural dances, and band music greets visitors on the way to the entrance. Andalusian and African music brought dynamics to the program which also featured a short fashion show.
An art exhibition filled with historical artifacts, paintings and sculptures welcome guests as they enter the main hall. Some of the painters/associations who participated in the art exhibition includes: Afif Bennani, Amina Badraoui Idrissi, Nadia El Mouaque, Afafe Slaoui, Sophia Abi, Hicham Zouine, Hassan Mrani, Chaimae Aboudi, Aicha Arji Lebbar, Mhamdi Alaoui, Nadia Skali, Jacques Samir Stenka, Houdamouaddah, Noufissa Benjelloun, Aouatef Khelloqi, Association Forsaty Assadaka, Association Marocaine Pour La Solidarité Musulmane, Younes Cheikh Ali, Abdelwahab Sibaouaih and Foundation Abdelhadi Tazi.
Open for public, the evening showcased performances from Les fils et filles du Ziryab, Perle bleue, Groupe Youssef Saber and Orchestre Tarab.
The second day is a celebration of African Day for the promotion of Peace. The day’s highlight includes theater play, conferences, street art, and concert.
Mohamed VI Museum held a conference entitled “L’eau et l’homme : paix et coexistence” with invited speakers Jaafar Kanssousi, Khalid Rami, Khalid Rfifi, Tugba Evrim Maden and Jalila El Ofir tackling peace and coexistence between man and water.
Another conference held by the Anouar group discusses “The legacy of Ibn Battouta.” Keynote speakers include Mohamed Ait Laamim, Abdullah Alaoui, Mustapha Lamhaddar, Jaafar Kanssousi, Muhammad Al-Boughali, Mohammed Abdullah Boodai and Michlah Abderrahmane.
Another interesting conference held at the University of New England entitled “Self-discovery through travel” introduced speakers like Ahmed EL Shehawy, Zouheir Houmane, Anthony David, Noufissa Benjeloun, Aouatif Khelloqi and Bouchra Baibanou
The second evening’s concert was graced with performances from MloukGnawa, Sarro,Cisby , Malika la slameuse, Safiath, Groupe INING and Naj.
The third day was filled with conferences featuring topics on: Juan Goytisolo, a Spanish poet who was considered as Spain’s greatest living writer; the values of International Volunteering and its message of peace; role of having cultural dialogue to the world; and the journey between the Arab world and Latin America organized by the “Council for relations between the Arab World, Latin America and the Caribbean (CARLAC)” and an intervention on “Immigration and integration Arabs in Mexico “organized by the Mexican Embassy in Morocco at the University of New England.
The night capped off with two major events: the gala dinner and live concert. King Barra, Samia Tawil, and Abir El Abed thrilled their audience with their music on the stage of Cultural Center of Ahmed Boukmakh. The association also organized a formal gala dinner set at the Hotel Royal Tulip to honor the awardees acknowledged by the Moroccan Association of Ibn Battuta as “Ambassadors of Peace.”
To close the four-day event of the festival, a carnival parade participated by students, bands and associations marched along the streets of Tangier. Theater play and film shows were also presented for young kids to watch.
The International Festival of Ibn Battuta which started from a simple concept of promoting Tangier and the legacy of Ibn Battuta has produced a positive impact to the host city and captivated the hearts of many to further develop their love and passion to their country and the culture of travel. Local and international volunteers made this engaging festival come to life, certainly, a dream realized.
Spending some quality time with your family during your travels always create fond memories. If work has put your life on hold and has not traveled with your family for a very long time, here are some reasons we would like to share to inspire you and your family to take that long overdue Family Vacation.
- Relax together with your family. We all face a lot of challenges on a daily basis. Your kids have homework and you do house chores and spend long working hours to be able to provide for your family that a much needed time out is a must. Travel sets aside your boring old daily routine even just for a while and allows you to relax and unwind. Do things you do not usually do together with your family. Remember that these vacations should be fun and stress-free.
- Spend quality time together. Travel offers that chance to not just be physically together with your loved ones, but more importantly to have good communication. It’s the best time to talk about life. Engage in some real heart to heart conversation and catch up on things you missed talking about or doing. Vacations can pull your family together and spend quality time.
- Start creating beautiful memories. Moments that will fill you, your partner and your children’s hearts to leave a lasting impression that will always leave a smile once remembered. When you look back to the past while opening an old photo album or a travel video, you can relive those wonderful moments you shared together with your family.
- Experience new things together. When you’re outside traveling to other countries, you will see different things. You get to experience these new things together with your family. Together, you will learn a lot while on the road. Meet new people, culture, adopt good travel habit such as tolerance. These shared experiences will give you an amazing opportunity to create many of your family’s firsts. Take advantage of that chance,
Learn more about the amazing benefits of travel to you and your family and what it can do for the world. Join in the celebration of the second edition of the International Festival of Ibn Battuta happening on November 9 to 12, 2017 in the beautiful city of Tangier in the Kingdom of Morocco.
To know more about the event, visit the official website of the Moroccan Association of Ibn Battuta at http://ibnbattuta.ma/