The French ship Isère, from the port of Rouen two months earlier, arrives in New York, with on board the statue called “Liberty enlightening the world”. Symbol of the friendship between France and the United States since American independence, this bronze statue of 46 meters high is the work of the sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, its iron frame was designed by Gustave Eiffel. The book is stored in 210 crates. The base, at the expense of the Americans, not being completed, the statue will be inaugurated only in October 1886.
Inauguration of the Statue of Liberty
US President Cleveland erects the statue of French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi: “Freedom enlightening the world.” It is located on the island of Liberty Island in New York. France offered it to the United States to celebrate the Franco-American friendship during the war of independence. Built in molded copper plates, it has an iron frame designed by Gustave Eiffel.
After the War of 1870, Bartholdi made a trip to the United States, with the idea of designing a sculpture to celebrate American independence. Entering New York Bay on June 21, 1871, he imagines a colossal statue erected at the entrance of the harbor: Liberty illuminating the world. This work is directly inspired by the project developed for Suez. Bartholdi designed, with the help of Gustave Eiffel for the structure, a statue in copper strips on a steel frame measuring 33 meters high and placed on a pedestal 34 meters. This statue, made in Paris, was inaugurated in New York in 1886, and earned the author the title of citizen of New York.
This sculpture very quickly obtained a universal recognition and many replicas, of various dimensions, are realized, of which one of most famous decorates the end swallows of the Swan Island (bridge of Grenelle) in Paris since 1885. The most recent is erected at the northern entrance of Colmar in 2004, on the occasion of the centenary of the death of Bartholdi.
Patriotic inspiration and the sense of monumentality allowed Bartholdi to powerfully renew the tradition of public places sculpture.The birthplace of Bartholdi in Colmar was transformed into a museum in 1904 and presents the many aspects of his work as a sculptor, architect, painter and draftsman.
During a trip to Egypt, Auguste Bartholdi was enthused by the scheme of the Suez Canal whose construction and entrepreneurship was led by Ferdinand de Lesseps, who later became one of his most great friends. He thus imagined an immense lighthouse that would be located at the opening to the canal and those plans he drew. The lighthouse would be in the image of the goddess Libertas of the Roman pantheon, deity of freedom, but its representation had to be modified to look like an Egyptian girl in a dress (a fallaha). The light of the lighthouse is a shining place in the air, towards the heavens. Bartholdi presented his campaign to the Khedve Ismail Pasha in 1867 and again in 1869, but the project was not at all retained 33. The drawings in this project, Egypt Bringing Light to Asia or Freedom Brightening the East, are very similar to the Statue of Liberty, though Bartholdi has always claimed that the New York monument was not re-used, but an original work.
The project to build a lighthouse at the entrance of the Suez Canal was inspired by the Colossus of Rhodes was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Built the Greek god of the sun, Helios, the colossus would have a size of about 30 meters, and also stood at the entrance to a torch to guide ships. The position of the colossus, legacy spread around the entrance, however, is different from that of the Statue of Liberty. It is also in statue of Apollo Helios, wearing a radiant crown, which was transformed into the colossal statue, more than thirty meters, from the Emperor Nero, when it was moved in front of the Colosseum by Hadrian.
The head of Liberty is directly inspired by the Great Seal of France, official symbol of the French Republic since the Second Republic in 1848. The two “liberties”, French and American, each bear a crown with seven branches symbolizing the seven seas and continents of the planet. Many other sources of inspiration are evoked, such as the statue of Liberty of the poetry breaking its chains (1883), a monument to Jean-Baptiste Niccolini by Pio Fedi in the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence, which Bartholdi could have seen. sketch on the spot in 1870 36the same year that Jules Lefebvre painted his painting The Truth and Bartholdi the first studies of his statue; While the theme of liberty already appeared with The Genie of Liberty (1836) on the column of July or in the painting of Liberty Leading the People (1830) of Delacroix.
Auguste Bartholdi, Son of Jean-Charles Bartholdi (1791-1836), councilor of the prefecture, and Charlotte Beysser, native of Ribeauvillé (1801-1891). Jeanne Emilie Baheux of Puysieux (1829-1914), in Newport, on December 20 1876. In 1836, after the death of the father, the family moved to Paris. Education at Lycée Louis Le Grand; attended successively the workshops of Antoine Etex, Ary Scheffer and Jean-François Soitoux. During this period, the statue of Agnès de Hergenheim , founder of the Convent of Unterlinden (1852), a bas-relief depicting Francoise de Rimini (1852). Present at the Salon a Good Samaritan (1853) and the polychrome group of Seven Swabians without success. Beginning in 1856, from July to October, a trip to Egypt with the “orientalist” painters Leon Belly, Imer, Jean Leon Gerome; discover a monumental art that will influence throughout his career. Author in 1856 of the statue of General Rapp in Colmar, his first great work. Won the first prize in the competition organized in 1857 by the city of Bordeaux to decorate the Place des Quinconces with a monumental fountain. This project will eventually see the light of day in Lyon in 1889. Retained by the city of Marseille (1858) for the architectural ensemble of the Longchamp Palace, which he designed. Completed in 1863 the fountain of Admiral Bruat which earned him the artistic notoriety and insignia of the Legion of Honor, Becomes an official artist and solicited. Created in 1861 the fountain and the statue of the colmarian painter Martin Schongauer, in 1864, the group of the modern Martyr celebrating Poland in the face of the greed of Prussia and Russia, the funerary monument of his fellow citizen Georges Nefftzer, co-founder of the Temps and the revue des Deux-Monde (1865), the statue of General Arrighi in Corte (1868), the statue of Vauban in Avallon (1870) and that of Vercingetorixin Clermont-Ferrand (1870). Specializes in historical and patriotic celebration. Meanwhile, after a new trip to Egypt, develops a monumental lighthouse project at the entrance of the Suez Canal (1869). This project, which will never see the day, announces the famous Liberty inaugurated twenty years later in New York. Frequent since 1865 Édouard de Laboulaye, professor at the College de France, member of the Institute, deputy then senator, craftsman and host of Franco-American friendship who dreams of France offering America a memorial to celebrate the American independence. During the events of 1870, took part in the battles of Colmar (September 14, 1870) as the Chief of Staff of the National Guard, then went to Tours where the Government of National Defense delegated to the Italian General Giuseppe Garibaldi who directs an ephemeral army of the Vosges. The 1870 war strongly permeated the sculptor’s artistic and ideological evolution. The Lion of Belfort , commanded in the aftermath of the conflict and completed in 1880, the Statue of Liberty, inaugurated on 28.10.1886, illustrate this way. They are both the masterpieces of the artist who must not forget the abundant national production including the statues of Champollion (1875) at the College de France, Gribeauval, the Invalides (1878), Lafayette in Paris (1878), Rouget de l’Isle at Lons-le-Saunier (1882), Diderot at Langres (1884), Switzerland rescuing Strasbourg , at Basle (1895), Gambetta , at Ville d’Avray (1891), Lafayette and Washington in Paris ( 1892), the Monument of the 3 seats in Belfort (1903), the funerary monument of Sergeant Hoff(1904) and that of the Aeronauts of the war 1870-71(1904). At the same time, despite his political choice, he contributed to the beautification of his hometown, by the Vigneron (1869), the Voulminot monument at the cemetery of Colmar (1872), the statue of Rœsselmann (1888), the Provost Colmarien, that of scholar GA Hirn (1894), the Lazare monument of Schwendi (1898) and the cooper who dominates the House of the Heads in Colmar since 1902. Official artist, today absent from most art history, Bartholdi is the antithesis of Rodin. Academic Master, he expresses his ideas and ideology of the III eRepublic using a traditional artistic language. It is not so much his art that made his reputation as his commitment skillfully exploited during his lifetime, but also after his death. Patriotism, the Republic, the American freedom, the French Alsace, the Resistance, were some lasting values that allowed the image of Bartholdi to continue. He had none the less some brilliant intuitions whose Liberty illuminating the World : by its site and its symbolism which long identified a whole continent, it is the perfect example of the work which surpassed the artist to the point of the to forget. It remains the most famous Alsatian artists of the 19th century.
French sculptor (born in Colmar April 2, 1834, died in Paris in October 1904), Bartholdi first worked with an architect from his hometown. He left Colmar for Paris to study architecture. At the same time, he began painting and sculpture classes in Jean François Soitoux’s studio. In 1855, he accompanied the painter and sculptor Jean Léon Gérome during a trip to Greece and the Orient. On his return, he introduced Lyre among the Berbers at the Salon of 1857. Without doubt, by his training as an architect, he favors monumental sculpture. and executed mainly large-scale works. He executed many orders for his native region: the statue of General Rapp, the monument of Martin Schongauer, that of Admiral Bruat, the fountains of the Young Vintner and Lazare Schwendi. He sculpts several works of patriotic character, the most famous of which is the lion of Belfort, a work carved in the rock, in honor of the resistance of the city of Belfort. This monumental work, placed at the foot of the castle of Belfort, is twenty-two meters wide and eleven meters high. The statue of liberty illuminating the world at the entrance to New York Harbor, on the occasion of the centennial of American independence, is one of his best-known works. His latest works are the monument of the three seats supported by the city of Belfort in the same century, a monument inaugurated in 1912, and that of the aeronauts of the Paris headquarters, raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, at the roundabout of the Revolt. Bartholdi receives the Medal of Honor at the Salon of 1895, Switzerland helping the pain of Strasbourg during the siege of 1870. He was appointed Knight of the Legion of Honor in 1865, Officer in 1882 and Commander in 1887. He is a member of the committee of the Society of French Artists of which he was vice-president from 1900 to 1903.
• The good Samaritan.
• General Rapp. Colmar
• The lyre among the Berbers, memory of the Nile. 1857 Salon
• A genius with the claws of misery.
• First President R
• Andre Roberachts, violinist.
• General Count Schramm.
• Monument to Admiral Bruat
• The modern martyr (Poland).
• A veiled funerary genius, sitting on the ground, his head resting on his knees, in the attitude of deep pain.
• Jean Thomas Arighi de Cassanova, Duke of Padua, Major General. Bronze statue.
• Mr. Lorentz, Director of the School of Water and Forests.
• Recreation for peace.
• The Vintner drinking water or thirsty. Strasbourg, museum of modern and contemporary art.
• Marshal Vauban. Avallon (Yonne).
• The tomb of the National Guards of Colmar died fighting for the homeland in 1870.
• Erckmann and Chatrian. • The curse of Alsace. • La Fayette arriving in America.
• Grave of the landscape painter Salzmann.
• Philadelphia Fountain
• Champollion. Marble statue Paris, College of France.
• The lion of Belfort. Belfort Castle (Belfort).
• The lion of Belfort.
• General Artillery Jean Baptiste Vaquette Gribeauval
• Portrait of Maurice A
• Portrait of Pierre C
• Rouget de Lisle. Lons-le-Saunier (Jura).
• Gustave Jundt
• Freedom illuminates the world.
• Freedom illuminates the world. Bronze reduction.
• Freedom. Terracotta statuette. Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon.
• Fountain. Bronze group.
• Monument of Paul Bert.
• Roesselmann Fountain.
• Rivers and springs en route to the ocean.
• Funerary monument of M. H
• Gambetta Monument.
• Funerary monument of sculptor Soitoux, died in 1891.
• Washington and La Fayette.
• Adolphe Hirn, a member of the Institute, dies in 1890.
• Switzerland relieves the pain of Strasbourg during the siege of 1870. Strasbourg (Haut-Rhin), Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art. Salon of 1895. (A reduction is at the Petit Palais).
• Lazare Schwendi Fountain.
• The Saône carrying its tributaries.
• Monument of French soldiers who died in Schinznach (Switzerland) in 1870.
• Christopher Colombus . Sens (Yonne), Municipal Museum.
• MP Guichard.
• Lafayette in his youth.
• The great supporters of the world: Work, Patriotism, the. Justice. Colmar (Haut-Rhin), Bartholdi museum.
• The Alsatian cooper. Colmar (Haut-Rhin).
• Monument to the three seats supported by the city of Belfort during the same century.
• Vercingetorix. Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dome).
• Sergeant Hoff.
• Monument of the aeronauts of the Parisian headquarters.
• Tomb of Emile Hubner. Mulhouse (Haut-Rhin), cemetery.
The Legion of Honor is created, on 29 Floréal year X [19 May 1802], by the First Consul Bonaparte, in order to reward the civil and military merits in times of peace or war. This distinction, whose motto is “honor and fatherland”, replaces the royal order of Saint-Louis, abolished in 1792. The first hierarchy has four ranks (legionnaire called “knight”, officer, commander and grand officer). Since 1830, the administration of the Legion of Honor is placed under the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice (Directorate of Civil Affairs and Seal) but this attachment remains formal insofar as the Grand Chancellor has always worked directly with the Chief of State. Under the Second Empire, this tutelage is exercised by the Ministry of State. Since the 1962 reform, the countersignature of the texts of the Legion of Honor is attributed to the Prime Minister and no longer to the Minister of Justice, who nevertheless retains control of the budgets, which reinforces the idea that the Legion of Honor is an autonomous institution. The order is currently composed of three ranks (Knight, Officer, Commander) and two dignities (Grand Officer and Grand Cross). The Legion of Honor is awarded by decree of the President of the Republic, who is the Grand Master, on the proposal of the ministers, after examination by the council of the order. Order is currently composed of three ranks (Knight, Officer, Commander) and two dignities (Grand Officer and Grand Cross). The Legion of Honor is awarded by decree of the President of the Republic, who is the Grand Master, on the proposal of the ministers, after examination by the council of the order.Order is currently composed of three ranks (Knight, Officer, Commander) and two dignities (Grand Officer and Grand Cross). The Legion of Honor is awarded by decree of the President of the Republic, who is the Grand Master, on the proposal of the ministers, after examination by the council of the order.
The main texts relating to the Legion of Honor are the decree of March 1, 1808, the organic order of March 26, 1816, the organic decree of March 16, 1852. In 1962 the 80 decrees and orders taken since 1802 are incorporated in the decree. November 28, 1962 to form the Code of the Legion of Honor and the Military Medal which gives the Legion of Honor new statutes and is the basis of the current operation of the order. This code is then amended by the decree of 21 November 2008 consolidated to 29 May 2010. All of these texts can be found on the website of the public service of access to law Legifrance.
The museum was created on the initiative of General Dubail, Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor, and funded through an open subscription among legionaries and military medalists, whose success was particularly keen in the United States. It was inaugurated in 1925. At the initial core of the collections, made up of the funds of the Grand Chancery, deposits of national museums, were added, over time, numerous donations of collectors [coll. Maurice Bucquet (1860-1921), coll. The Tour d’Auvergne Lauragais, coll. Pierredon], but also donations made by foreign states to complete the existing collections [Russian Federation, Poland, finally prestigious purchases and dations [casket decorations of Cambaceres in 1982, necklace of the order Royal Palace of the Two Sicilies of Achille Murat in 2002]. Noteworthy since 2008, the deposit by Antonio Benedetto Spada of his collection at the Museum: this collection is undoubtedly the largest in private hands.
The insignia, whose design is inspired by the cross of the Order of the Holy Ghost , is a star with five double rays enamelled in white, the ten buttoned ends. The star and the buttons are silver for the knights, in silver for the officers. The spokes are connected by a crown, silver or vermeil following the grade, enamelled green and composed of oak leaves (right) and laurel(left) and whose lower ends, crisscrossed, are attached by a node . The center of the star has a gold medallion with a head Ceres profile, symbolizing the Republic ( Napoleon I st under the two empires, of Henry IV under the Restoration and the monarchy of July and Bonaparte, Consul, under the Second Republic ), surrounded by a blue circle , bearing the words: FRENCH REPUBLIC . The star is suspended from a crown of leaves (imperial crown under the two empires and royal under the Restoration and the monarchy of July ), silver or vermeil following the grade, enamelled with green and composed of oak leaves (this once on the left) and laurel (this time on the right). On the reverse, the gold medallion carries two tricolor flags with the inscription Honor and Fatherland(currency unchanged since the creation of the order) and highlight the order of creation date: 29 Floreal An X .
The badge is suspended from a red ribbon, which some believe inherited from the military order of St. Louis . It has a rosette for the officers. The size of the badge in vermeilCommanders, suspended on a tie, are half larger than those of the first two ranks. The commander’s tie is always worn alone around the neck (which is not the case of the other neckties of French commanders: national, maritime, agricultural merit, etc., which can be worn together). Great officers carry the officer’s cross with a plaque (commonly called “spit”) on the right side of the chest. The grand crosses carry the same plaque, but in vermeil, on the left side of the chest. Their gilt cross, almost double that of the first two grades, is worn in a sling, suspended from a large red ribbon that passes over the right shoulder.
In civilian clothes, the knights wear a red ribbon in their buttonholes, the officers a red rosette, the commanders a red rosette on a silver half-knot, the great officers a red rosette half-knot, half silver half-gold, and the grand- cross a red rosette on a half-knot in gold. The half-knot is colloquially called “sofa”.
The museum occupies a modern wing elevated between 1922 and 1925 on the site of the old stables of the hotel of Salm, overlooking the forecourt of the Orsay museum. The museum presents its permanent collections on several levels, in theme spaces dedicated to:
- to the history of the palace and the creation of the museum,
- to chivalric and religious orders,
- to the French royal orders,
- to the Legion of Honor, imperial orders and memories of the First Empire,
- foreign orders,
- orders, decorations and medals French from 1789 to the present day.
It is to this day, the only museum devoted to phaleristics .
Augustin -Yvon-Edmond Dubail was born in Belfort on April 15, 1851. He joined the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr on October 20, 1868(promotion of Suez, 1868-1870). Upon his release, Sub-Lieutenant Dubail joined the infantry and served with the 10th Battalion . During the Franco-German war of 1870 , he took part in the first battles in the East of France before being captured in Metz in October 1870 and interned in Germany. Released in 1871, he was assigned to the army of Versailles. In 1873 was promoted to lieutenant Dubail and serves the 138th Infantry Regiment . He is admitted to the course of the War College , newly created in 1877. Ranked 51th out of 67 in 1878, he won the North Africa to be used in the 1st regiment of Zouaves . Back in France, Captain Dubail, excellent cartographer and geographer, is assigned to the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr in 1880, first to teach geography and then as assistant professor in the course of art and military history from 1883 to 1886. He was then called to the War Department to take up the duties of ordnance officer of General Boulanger , minister of war. Then he was posted to various staffs and infantry regiments. In 1901 he was promoted to colonel and took command of the 1st regiment of Zouaves . Brigadier General December 1904 he commanded several infantry brigades until 1906. Dubail’s notoriety went beyond the military. He publishes books on military education and officer training. He is also the author of geography textbooks for elementary school. He also contributed to the illustrated Geography of France and its colonies of Jules Verne published in 1876.
The September 27, 1906, he is placed at the head of the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr . He is responsible for implementing the reform of the training of officers. Thus, before their two-year schooling at Saint-Cyr, student cadets are now obliged to perform one year of military service in a troop corps. When they enter the School, the Saint-Cyrians already have solid military knowledge, thus disrupting instruction and teaching at the “Special”.
The December 25, 1908Dubail is promoted to Major General. He first took command of the 14th Infantry Division and was appointed Chief of Staff to the Minister of War, Maurice Berteaux the March 5, 1911. In May, Dubail becomes Chief of General Staff of the Army. Member of the Supreme War Council , Vice-Chairman of the Technical Staff Committee, Vice-Chairman of the Higher Military Commission of Railways and Permanent Inspector of Military Schools, Dubail is one of the most senior general seen on the eve of the First World War .
At the outbreak of war, he commanded the 1st Army in Lorraine . He enters Alsace through the gap of Belfort and opposes the German advance on the occasion of the battle of Sarrebourg and the battle of the gap of Charmes . In early 1915, Dubail was given command of the Eastern Army Group in the Verdun area . From the month ofJulyhe points out the insufficiency of the defenses of the forts in artillery, but his warnings are ignored by the high command. Reached by the age limit, he was admitted to retirement in 1916. Military governor of the entrenched camp of Paris deMarch 1916until the spring of 1918, Dubail is Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor onJune 14, 1918. In the early 1920s, he published his campaign paper. In 1921, he created the Society of Mutual Aid to the members of the Legion d’Honneur, with the support of the President of the Republic Alexandre Millerand , to help the poorest recipients. Finally, in 1925 he opened the museum of the Legion of Honor in Paris. General Dubail died in Paris on January 7, 1934. He is buried in the Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris.
An avenue of 16 th arrondissement of Paris was named in his honor, the General-Dubail Avenue.
- Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor
- knight on June 24, 1886
- officer on July 11, 1900
- Commander of the Legion of Honor on December 30, 1905
- great officer the February 16, 1912
- Grand Cross the September 10, 1914
- Military Medal on October 8, 1915
- Commemorative Medal of the War 1870-1871
- 1914-1918 War Cross , with two bronze palms
- Commemorative Medal of the 1914-1918 War
- Allied Medal 1914-1918
- Grand Cross of the Order of Nicham Iftikhar of Tunisia (Officer in 1885).
- big cordon of the order of Ouissam alaouite of Morocco.
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia .
- Grand Cross of the Order of St. Agatha (in) of San Marino.
- Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St. Sava of Serbia.
- Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle of Serbia.
- Grand Cross of the Romanian Crown Order .
- Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit of Bulgaria.
- Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro.
- Belgian war cross 1914-1918 with a bronze fin.
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Belgium.
- Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (GCMG)
- 4 th class of the Order of St. George of Russia.
- First class (Grand Cross) of the Order of St. Stanislaus of Russia.
- Army Distinguished Service Medal , United States of America (1919).
- first class (Grand Cross) of the Order of the Rising Sun of Japan (1919).
- first class (Grand Cross) of the sacred Treasury of Japan.
- Grand Cross of the Polonia Restituta Order of Poland.
- Grand Cross of the Military Order of Virtuti Militari of Poland.
- Commander of the Swedish Sword Order .
- Grand Cross of the Order of St. Benedict of Aviz of Portugal.
- Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit of Spain.
Ramón María Narváez y Campos (Loja, near Granada ), August 5, 1800 – Madrid , April 23, 1868 ) was a Spanish military and politician.
After having lived for a long time in France, he opposed the absolutist uprising of 1822, being a part of liberalism. During the First Carlist War , he took a stand for Isabel II , and rose in rank after having played a decisive role in the battles of Mendigorría and Arlabán.
In rivalry with Espartero , another general officer of the army of supporters of Isabella, who presides over the government from 1837 to 1839, Narváez must go into exile in Paris. It is there that he creates the Orden Militar española, a military association to overthrow the progressive Spanish government.
He returned to Spain in 1843, won the victory over Espartero’s troops on July 23, in Torrejón de Ardoz , near Madrid . In November of the same year, he is the target of an attack to which he survives.
He married, on March 24, 1843 , Marie Alexandrine de Tascher ( January 5, 1822 – Paris † August 23, 1868 – Madrid ), daughter of Ferdinand de Tascher ( December 22, 1779 – Orleans† December 14, 1858 – Paris ), Earl of Tascher , Auditor at the Council of State and Pair of France .
In 1844, when Isabel II became a major, Narváez was named president of the government, and played a big role in the drafting of the 1845 Constitution . He submitted his resignation in 1851, but was recalled in 1856, after the coup d’etat of Leopoldo O’Donnell , to preside over the government; he headed three different governments between 1856 and 1868, leading a repressive policy against revolutionary movements. Shortly after her death, Isabel II was overthrown by the 1868 Revolution .
- Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Carlos III
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
- Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Alcántara
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Ferdinand
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Sant’Ermenegildo
- Knight Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor (Kingdom of France)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and the Sword (Portugal)
Emmanuel Marie-des-Neiges by Rohan Polduc (or Pouldu) is the 70th Grand Master of the Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem.
He was born in Spain in La Mancha (his father having exiled because of the conspiracy of Pontcallec in Brittany) on April 18, 1725.
He served at the Spanish Court and Parma during his youth. He was ambassador extraordinary to the Emperor Francis I. Knight of Malta, he was general of the galleys, bailiff and general of the land and naval forces. Brilliant legislator, he wrote the code which still bears his name and which is still today the fundamental source of the law of the Order of Malta. He reorganized the fleet and created a chair of navigation and mathematics at the university. He died in Valletta on July 14, 1797.
“The passing years seem to bring you only good. You have gained experience and wisdom, but without losing your dynamism or your youthfulness. Mostly, do not change anything, you are my model! very happy birthday.” Celebrating Mr. Naïm’s Birthday was such an honor! Everyone is gathered to wish him a very happy birthday.
Located at 25 Avenue Montaigne and built in two campaigns between 1902 and 1909, Hotel Plaza-Athénée is an eight-storey luxury hotel, designed in an eclectic style by architect Charles Lefèvre.
On the occasion of a change of ownership in 1933, the hotel is modernized. He opened again in 1936. During the Second World War, he was successively occupied by the German and American commands. It will return to commercial activity in 1946. In 1970, the ground floor is modified: the Salon Montaigne is created on this occasion by the meeting of the former reading room and the salon called “Regency”. The dining room was rehabilitated in 1984.
The Plaza Athénée is part of the very closed circle of Parisian palaces. After 11 months of work, it reopened in September 2014, and they find everything that makes the soul of the hotel: classic and luxurious suites, a restaurant completely transformed and taken over by Alain Ducasse, the same upscale service that has made it famous, a large, refurbished interior courtyard, and still the Dior spa. A breath of modernity and a tribute to the past, here is essentially what now offers the Plaza Athénée.
The palace of Avenue Montaigne opened on April 20, 1913. A century later, the jewel of the Parisian hotel remains at the top of the bill.
Once upon a time, the palace of tomorrow. “François Delahaye, managing director since 1999 of the prestigious liner of 146 rooms and 45 suites (average revenue, € 980 per night), summarizes his commitment. He explains: “The Plaza Athénée must always be one step ahead.” Demonstration: this is where, for the first time, a color code, red, was applied everywhere in a hotel, geraniums with windows included, that the rooms were equipped with a minibar and air conditioning, a huge chef ( Alain Ducasse ) picked three macaroons less than a year after installation, soon followed by pastry chef Christophe Michalak, that a rink carpeted the inner courtyard, that a lounge bar opened under the woodwork of another time, that the staff was interested in the smooth running of the house (€ 3,500 premium per person in 2012. The man, temples of money and student smile, keeps the meaning of the formula: “We are innkeepers. Leading the hotel is to set the pace and trust the 550 employees. Our exceptional location must be highlighted by impeccable service. When a customer pays 9 € for coffee, there can be no challenge. ”
François Delahaye does not lack ideas either. In addition to organizing a sparkling birthday, he takes the initiative to enclose in a waterproof box a collection of objects that tell 100 years of the Plaza Athénée. An iPad with video of the hotel, the whistle of the hunter who, in 1913, hailed the cabs, letters from famous customers, some silverware, a bottle of wine, photos, etc. The precious container the size of a suitcase will be hidden “somewhere” under the marble of the Gobelins gallery which runs along the inner garden and the two restaurants. “I’ll dig it up after I leave!”
While waiting for this message to the future to delight its inventors, the Plaza Athénée savors its daily life. First, this car show in the open, on the alleyways of Avenue Montaigne. Mercedes and Porsche, almost banal, Bentley is more serious, Maserati , yes, if it is the latest model registered in Geneva, Ferrari , eternal star of bitumen, dress in harmony with the flowers and the Monegasque plates. Or those of Brunei. The Sultanate has owned the establishment since 1997. A step ahead, of course; he murmurs that when he arrives in Paris, a certain prince of the sands demands to have several of his cars in front of him and that McLaren engineers make a special trip from Great Britain. The automobile tradition was born with the hotel and had parked here the Delage , Bugatti, Hispano-Suiza, huge Phantom Rolls, Versailles convertible with whitewall tires, the DS Pallas and their driver … Yesterday as today the onlooker keeps his eyes round.
A cocoon out of space-time
Then there is the table. La grande, pronounce ADPA (Alain Ducasse at the Plaza Athénée), an exceptional plate and a meticulous service never stilted. Class, the real one. And the brewery Le Plaza, a joyful formula without tie, always animated by Werner Kuchler , memory of a thousand and one celebrations alternating beer and champagne, Bavarian maestro with the repertoire of 120 songs, Marlene, Aznavour , Montand. A step ahead? This will be the raclette served at the edge of the ice rink in winter, on tables way cottage. Down jackets and hats obligingly lent. Unless greeting the arrival of spring in the same place, but flower garden version. Alain Ducasse marries asparagus from Provence with morels and sweetbreads with black truffle. Some are crying with gratitude, others go away hopping with joy in this Gobelins gallery that tells the century: crystal sconces, embroidered doilies and damask armchairs, pale gray cocktail, soft pink and light yellow.
Good news, this path of low tables and padded confidences leads to the bar, new pole of excellence of the Parisian night. DJ turntables, huge carved iceberg counter, Plexi chairs or deep armchairs, log fire video, scholar penumbra, map on iPad. We love it in a cocoon out of space-time. Guaranteed surprise when the solid cocktail comes: vodka-peach lollipop planted in ice or slice of liqueurs. This joke of high flight necessarily generates good mood and starred eyes.
Finally, please take the elevator lined with wood to climb the floors. After all, the Plaza Athénée is first and foremost a house where sleeping is good. Float the legends. Peter Komma, receptionist and four decades in the service of the palace, tells Hitchcock “always on the first floor, by terror of a fire”, Sinatra just out of the police station that is unloading the rest of the night on the piano of his Then, the American couple with a little dog who, in his room, opens the trunk containing squares of the lawn of their house, history that the dog keeps his marks.
Christian Dior held there salon
Or, the installation of Michael Jackson’s penthouse : dozens of balloons, as many bowls filled with Smarties and a chocolate Eiffel Tower, at height of man. Follow Karajan , Borg , Harrison Ford , Roger Moore , Elton John , Shakira , Mike Jagger … The CAC 40 , the Nyse , the FTSE, the mundane, the Hollywood plateaus and the hit parades of the last twenty years parade at the Plaza, pinstripe suit, light muslins with diams to scratch the mirrors, tips of stars stashed behind their dark glasses. Like to extend the night. She is so cozy when you spend in a room away from the ordinary world. Carpets accented with Persian rugs, crystal chandeliers, sofas and armchairs stretched in thick velvet, furniture inspired by centuries of light, master paintings, heavy hangings, tanned wood paneling, all stained with red, a lampshade, a cushion, a trimmings, a bouquet. The highest-rated rooms are those on the upper floors that open onto Avenue Montaigne. The palace plays the sentries. Creators and actors have made their den.
As a neighbor, Christian Dior held a salon and organized his presentations. Since then, chic claws are the most fashionable counter-aisles in Paris. It is said that a regular in the Gulf requires, for a fee, all shops can be opened and privatized for his suite, day and night. Jean-Claude Elgaire, chief concierge and 49 years here before making the beautiful days of Mama Shelter, remembers this American couple arrived at Saint-Lazare station at the end of his transatlantic crossing. The gentleman of a certain age contemplated the ten trunks of his young conquest and announced that there would be a little more in return, when he would have yielded to the whims of his haute couture. “My daily life was to privatize the Concorde, to find a starred table, a cabriolet, a vintage bottle. I do not remember an unmet wish. The 12-person Plaza concierger is considered the best in the world. ”
France is packed with a lot of palaces and castles, usually in splendid locations, each one rich in history. These are no longer just remnants of the past, as at present it is possible for us to experience living history in a French chateau.
The word “chateau” is a French term which has been included in the English language. The French word “chateau” signifies a variety of structural buildings such as a Renaissance palace, medieval fortress, and a 19th century country house.
The Paris region having a unique history has several chateaux to discover, wherein some are considered extraordinary heritage sites. If you are currently traveling in Paris, get on a romantic journey or take your family for a day trip and imagine yourselves as a rich 17th-century Parisian as you discover the grandness of chateaux within and around Paris.
Open all year round, these chateaux offer locals and tourists the chance to travel through France’s history and discover the region of Paris’ cultural heritage gems.
Must-See Châteaux Around Paris
Château de Chantilly
Although not visited by crowds of tourists, this chateau is a fairly easy getaway from Paris. Château de Chantilly rewards visitors with a spectacular view once they enter the property grounds. The gardens which comprises of canals, lakes, and manicured lawns with each having a unique theme are all works of art. The gardens itself are worth the trip and best appreciated at a relaxed phase. The castle is home to one of France’s luxurious art galleries as the previous owner, the Duke of Aumale, was an avid collector.
Château de Fontainebleau
A beautiful castle situated 55 kilometers southeast of Paris, Le Château de Fontainebleau is a must-see tourist spot in the French capital. A huge forested estate, the original castle is enclosed by beautiful forest and was constructed in the 12th century as a hunting ground for king Louis VII of France. From then on, his successors spent time and money expanding and and decorating the castle that at present, Fontainebleau is one of the most beautiful and largest royal castles in France.
Palace of Versailles
Probably the most popular palace in France, Palace of Versailles is among the most visited travel destinations in the world. Located ten miles from the capital, this luxurious château has once been France’s seat of power, and eventually became a museum that displays the country’s history. The Palace welcomes over eight million visitors a year. The chateau, built in 1600s is comprised of a splendid garden, 2300 rooms and a Grand Canal. Not to be missed is the Hall of Mirrors which has over 350 mirrors.
Château de la Belle au Bois Dormant
Otherwise known as Sleeping Beauty’s Castle, Le Château de la Belle au Bois Dormant is situated at Disneyland Paris’ Main Street. This famous fairytale castle is surely worth a visit if you need a pot of magic in your life. This is the only Disney castle with its own massive robotic dragon in the dungeon underneath, which usually when awakened blows up a smoke.
If will be visiting Disneyland Paris during the night, the park also projects the Illuminations Show onto the castle front along with scenes from Disney films, fountains, lasers and fireworks.
Whether your interest is gardens, art, or to experience the French lavishness, a trip to Paris would not be complete without immersing into the countryside and visit the region’s grand châteaux.
If you are looking for a chic night out and craving for some treat while on your tour in Paris, this has to be included on the top spots to try out.
The La Societe is a restaurant located in Saint-Germain-des-Prés. The avenue is what you describe as effortlessly fashionable and all things picturesque. Alongside the street are famous fine-dining restaurants, tiered cafés, haute-couture shops, and ivy-covered fences.
If you are also into arts and antique crafts, there are galleries and small museums standing around the corners. The restaurant is where you can also find a historical landmark that is the oldest church in Paris. Brilliant musicians perform on the streets. Famous celebrities and middle-class Parisians often roam Saint Germain and once you get there you will realize that it is obviously a district where afternoon people-watching from a café or playing cards in a brasserie is normal daily happening.
La Societe is a fashion hub of grand Parisian style built by one of France’s leading designers Christian Liaigre and is owned by the Costes. Once you enter the restaurant, you will notice how beautiful and properly dressed the crew are. Anyone can easily assume that they are also guests and not working in the restaurant. Being a high-end restaurant in heart of Paris, La Societe does not only fill you with delicious foods but also fill your senses with elegance and style. The waiters are not only head-turners but also friendly and accommodating. While having your meal, your ears will be welcomed with music played from the grand piano, which sets a relaxing and serene atmosphere in the restaurant.
Mr. Mohamed Dekkak is a fan of mixed French-European and Asian cuisines and this is what La Societe is well known for. According to him, the restaurant is in a great location. The area is easy to access as it is just right on top of the Metro station. You have a choice to dine inside and be immersed in the artistic yet elegant interiors of the restaurant or if you are a nature lover, there are tables outside with canopies and the atmosphere is even better at night.
Once you find your preferred table and made your orders, you will be given a glass of champagne, and while drinking, you will get enough time to perceive the design of the restaurant. Everything from furniture and fixtures, and the floorings are of premium quality and you can choose from a plenty of loungers and leather-covered benches inside the restaurant. However, reservation is recommended if you have preferred spots, as there are times that the restaurant is jam-packed.
The food and drink are exceptional and served generously from the starter, the main course, and to dessert. La Societe exudes a lavish ambience that offers a distinctive and invigorating menu. Fish dishes are magnificent especially the sea bass tartar and steamed salmon, so was the prawn risotto.
At nighttime, the restaurant turns into a high-end club with lounge anthems and graced with dressy collections of Left Bank artists and fashion lovers. Some of the most notable dishes include a roasted duck, tuna nicoise and Le Club Saint Germain.
People do not just come to Le Societe for the food, but also for the experience and everything is worth the price spent. Initially, it is certainly not a tourist place so you get to watch really nice, aristocratic Parisiennes with their families and friends. It offers an all-day menu of post-modern brasserie faire served by the staff of impeccably good looks with manners to match and the ambience speaks of chic and trendy all over the place.
Immigration, from the Caribbean to the Middle East, has given Paris city a colorful blend of international cuisines.
France, similar to Britain, had an enormous empire once. For the past sixty years, thousands of immigrants from these colonies have made Paris their home, including Moroccans who have gone to great lengths to recreate their country’s dishes. This makes the capital city an ideal place to take on a memorable culinary trip.
Moroccan Food in the Capital City
Traveling to the City of Light is a great chance to take lunch or dinner in any Moroccan restaurants in Paris. The very refined and varied Moroccan food, is very much loved by Parisians and the Couscous is one of favorite dishes of French people.
Even though it had been a challenge for traditional restaurants had to mark their presence to the French palate, they have eventually become a part of France’s daily life. The country’s favorite dish is couscous which is available at least once a week in many school cafeteria. Fatéma Hal, a chef from Morocco has launched in 1985 the Mansouria restaurant. She has been known internationally as an ambassador of Moroccan cuisine.
Having an amazing Arabian Nights vibe and lavish Moroccan palace interior decor filled with gold chandeliers, Moorish furniture highlighting lovely and fine crafted stucco, cut with a knife by artisans. Experience the historic splendor and refined architecture of the city with Timgad, an elegant Moroccan restaurant adorned with fine stuccowork.
The Timgad in the 17th district, situated close to Place d’Etoile, is a gem of Moroccan cuisine in Paris. This address is well known with the Parisians set in smart casuals longing for the sun and warmth of the Mediterranean. This small corner of the Orient, which borrows its name from an ancient North African city, is worth the detour for its only decoration.
Diners will sure have an enjoyable meal. Along with quality service over the years, your senses will surely be in for a treat. A small fountain adds charm to the idyllic setting. Of course not to be missed is their best-seller couscous and tagine dishes and the delicate Moroccan pastries. The menu is in tune: rich selection of couscous (semolina is a rare delicacy), tagines and pastillas
The restaurant offers only the best eastern traditional cuisine: hand-rolled couscous, lamb “mechoui” cooked on a wood fire. Chef Ahmed Laasri of Timgad delights guests with its mix of sweet and savory flavors. There are dozens of couscous to choose from, served in generous amount but also some specialties such as farm chicken skewers grilled with charcoal or almond pigeon tagine.
Timgad is your best Moroccan restaurant in a Paris neighborhood. So if you want to get a taste of Moroccan and North African cuisine, head out to one of Paris’ best dining restaurant at 21 Rue Brunel, 75017 Paris, France.
Paris, France: In an effort to promote heritage as a vital element of cultural diversity and emphasize the best practices to take care of the preservation and development of heritage, Ateliers d’Art de France in close collaboration with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Culture, embassies, cities and ministries of partner countries, and associations will host the 24th Salon International du Patrimoine Culturel that takes place on October 25 – 28, 2018 at Carrousel du Louvre in the city of Paris.
This 2018 carries the theme “European Heritage, Common Heritage”, as it fosters dialogue between cultures, citizens and European countries through recognizing the cultural heritage. The event brings together a variety of heritage professionals in an opportunity to share their expertise and experiences on heritage protection.
Established around 25 years ago, the International Cultural Heritage Fair has developed to become the leading heritage event in Europe. From its conception, it has innately upheld itself as a much attended fair by the industry’s game changers – passionate professionals from the field of Cultural heritage preservation.
A Gathering of Heritage Professionals
The annual event has attracted thousands of keen visitors who attend to discover the immense passion and professionalism shown by its participants and exhibitors.
Through the many lively conferences, roundtables and with support from speakers, the fair presents an opportunity for communication exchange amongst visitors and professionals.
Both French and global exhibitors come to impart the excellence and the singularity of their specific skills and to meet with enthusiastic and qualified visitors. Their support seeks to stimulate the cultural appeal of both the French and European heritage.
The event has bloomed to become one of the much-awaited events in the culture and heritage sector. The areas of interest include education, organizations, fine crafts, press and publishing, and service. These businesses who have played a huge part in boosting France’s cultural and heritage.
By attending the International Cultural Heritage Fair, the Ministry of Culture affirms its commitment to the preservation and dissemination to the public of the national and European heritage. Participation in several events at the show will be an opportunity to announce the variety of services of the Ministry of Culture and its General Directorate of Heritage.
About Ateliers d’Art de France
The mission of Ateliers d’Art de France is to bring to light the vital role and responsibility of arts in our society. It aims to bring together over 6,000 professionals
on the national level. It intends to represent and protect professional artists and contributes to the economic development of the sector, in France and abroad.
For this, Ateliers d’Art de France:
- Commits to the professional structuring of the crafts. In 2014, the official recognition of the crafts in the Law Crafts, Trade and TPE as an economic sector in its own right had laid the first milestone. Since then, Ateliers d’Art de France continues its fight and is today the ambassador in the creation of a professional branch of the arts.
- Promote crafts and their creations, through the organization, international trade fairs and events (such as MAISON&OBJET*, Revelations at the Grand Palais or Salon International Cultural Heritage) and the animation of a network of 6 places of sale in Paris and in the region, including EMPREINTES, plus large concept store of European crafts and 1st platform
- Invests in the cultural influence of the crafts, mainly through the creation of Editions Ateliers d’Art de France and the organization of the International Film Festival on Trades
Art. Federation, debater and firm defender of the workshops, heritage and creation service, Ateliers d’Art de France is a place of exchange of professionals of the crafts with the
institutions, the public authorities, and society.
European Year of Cultural Heritage
The International Cultural Heritage Fair is an important part of the European Year of Cultural Heritage as it seeks to convey the following:
– Promoting heritage as a central element of cultural diversity
– Valuing best practices to ensure the conservation and enhancement of heritage
– Foster dialogue between cultures, citizens and European countries through the recognition of a common cultural heritage.
The Salon will be the last major public and professional event of this European Heritage Year: a great way to end this intense cultural and heritage journey.
Attending the 24th Salon International du Patrimoine Culturel is Mohamed Dekkak, the Chairman and Founder of Adgeco. A firm believer and supporter of events that highlight the importance and appreciation of art, culture, and heritage, Mohamed continues to extend his support. He recently leads a team of volunteers in organizing a travel and cultural event entitled, “International Festival of Ibn Battuta”, held last November 2017 in the quaint city of Tangier in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Despite his celebrity and the prominence of his rank in the French school of the seventeenth century, Le Brun remains unknown: the official career of the first painter of the king often forget the work, which is often thought boring. This work, which must certainly be put back in time to understand its spirit, however, bears the mark of a strong and rich personality, who had given proof of independence before serving the royal will.
The son of the sculptor Nicolas Le Brun was noted for his early talent. His apprenticeship with François Perrier (around 1590-1656), then Simon Vouet initiated him in a broad and noble manner. The Brun also studied with profit the frescoes of Fontainebleau, the paintings and the antiques of the royal collections. Before the age of twenty, he had already secured the protection of Chancellor Séguier (1588-1672) and had begun to frequent a literary community. The first important order came from Richelieu, who had him paint in 1641, for the Palais-Cardinal (Palais-Royal), three paintings, of which remains (at the Nottingham Museum) the Diomedes delivered by Hercules to his horses, a juvenile passion. The following year, Le Brun offered to the Parisian community of painters and sculptors, for his chapel established in the church of the Holy Sepulcher, a Martyrdom of Saint John the Evangelist (today in Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet ), a great composition which shows him already in possession of his means. He wanted, however, to perfect his education in Italy. In Rome, where he arrived in 1642, he was influenced by Poussin and the Bolognese while studying Raphael. Poussin’s lesson inspires Mucius Scaevola in front of Porsenna (Macon museum), where a more frank realism betrays, however, the personality of the young artist: the influence of the Guerchin prevails in the pathetic Pietà he sent to Chancellor Séguier (Musée du Louvre). On the way back, Le Brun stopped at Lyon; it is there without doubt that he painted a Death of Cato (museum of Arras) realistic until the brutality.
Returning to Paris in 1646, Le Brun soon made a name for Philippe de Champaigne, Le Sueur, La Hire, Bourdon and Jacques Stella (1596-1657), painters of classical attendance taught him to temper his realism; however, he had to keep more vigor and wealth. In 1648 he was one of the founding members of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, of which he was to be the soul. The following year, the disappearance of Vouet offered him the opportunity to impose himself, and he obtained important orders for the religious establishments of the capital. Inspired by devout circles, he adopted a dignified and serious language, but without coldness, charged with symbolic intentions and with archaeological accuracy. In 1647 and 1651 he painted for the Silversmiths of Paris two of the “buts” of Notre-Dame, the Martyrdom of St. Andrew, and the Martyrdom of St. Stephen; Domenichino’s influence is sensible. From 1652, he gave the Carmelites several paintings of an ample style; those who represent Christ in the desert served by the angels (Louvre), the Meal at Simon (Accademia of Venice) and the repentant Madeleine (Louvre) are preserved. From the decoration commissioned in 1654 by Jean-Jacques Olier (1608-1657) for the chapel of the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, there remains only the altarpiece, a The descent of the Holy Spirit with a large chiaroscuro effect ( Louvre). There follow smaller compositions, long meditated, where the balance between nobility and realism reigns: the Holy Family, called the Sleep of the Child Jesus; the meal of the Holy Family, says the Blessing, commanded by the Brotherhood of Carpenters (both at the Louvre). At the same time, we know some frank and sensitive portraits; more sumptuous is the large painting representing the Chancellor Seguier with his suite (Louvre). But Le Brun also devoted much of his time to decorating Parisian hotels, in an opulent style where the memory of the Bolognese adds to that of Perrier and Vouet. In 1652, the abbot of La Rivière ordered two large-arched ceilings (today at the Carnavalet museum), the Lever du jour and the Histoire de Psyché. A powerful breath animates the Works of Hercules painted around 1655 in the vault of the gallery of the Lambert hotel. In 1658, finally, Charles Le Brun was commissioned by the Superintendent Nicolas Fouquet to direct the interior decoration of his castle of Vaux-le-Vicomte. Finding the maturity of his style, he completed the salon of the Muses, that of Hercules and the king’s room where the relief of stucco is associated with painting; but he did not have time to execute the grandiose project he had conceived for the dome of the central salon, in which the Palace of the Sun was to appear. The Brown in the service of Louis XIV Arrested in 1661 by the fall of Fouquet, the shipyard of Vaux had proved the genius of Le Brun in the role of prime contractor. Louis XIV thus found the artist he needed, the interpreter of his thoughts. He made Le Brun his first painter, granted him letters of nobility, and appointed him director of the Royal Gobelins Manufacture. Stunned by the service of the sovereign, Le Brun had to practically stop working for the private clientele and for the churches; One can hardly quote that the Resurrection painted in 1676 for the brotherhood of the Merciers of Paris (today with the museum of Lyon) and the Descent of Cross ordered in 1679 by the Carmelites of Lyon (museum of Rennes). We must put aside the work done for Colbert in his area of Sceaux: the cupola of the chapel (1674), destroyed, and that of the flag of Aurora (1677), which remains.
Charles Le Brun, Passage of the Rhine in the presence of the enemies For the king, Le Brun was commissioned in 1661 to decorate the vault of the Apollo Gallery in the Louvre. From about 1665 to 1673, he traced the History of Alexander (Louvre) in four huge paintings where a breath of epic (Louvre). Works were entrusted to him at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, but it was at Versailles that he had to give his full measure. From 1674 to 1678 he directed the decoration of the sumptuous staircase of the Ambassadors, where triumphed the art of trompe l’oeil, but which was a victim of the transformations of the eighteenth century. A team of painters worked under his orders at the King’s and Queen’s apartments. Charles Le Brun, Conquest of Franche-Comté With his assistants, Le Brun decorated the vault of the Hall of Mirrors from 1678 to 1684; to the symbolic works of Hercules originally planned was substituted a vast program celebrating, in a semi-historical, half-allegorical language, the most glorious actions of the monarch; the whole was completed by the ceilings of the salons of War and Peace. At the same time, Le Brun drew innumerable projects for sculptures, fountains, furniture, interior decoration details as well as for feasts and ceremonies. He is credited with the models of the main Gobelins woven tapestry hangings: the Four Elements, the Four Seasons, the History of Meleager, the Months or the Royal Houses and the History of the King, which accurately illustrates several episodes of the reign. The Brun even occupied himself with architecture; with Claude Perrault and Le Vau, he was in charge of developing the project of the colonnade of the Louvre; From 1679 to 1686, he designed the painted decoration of the facades of Marly. The death of Colbert in 1683 deprived him of an effective protector. Despite the favor of the king, Le Brun had to face a cabal fomented by the jealousy of Pierre Mignard and supported by Louvois. The conduct of the great works of decoration was withdrawn. In his later years, Le Brun began to paint easel pictures, where the memory of Poussin is recognized. The continuation of the Life of Jesus, commanded by the king, includes an adoration of the shepherds where the emotion is born of a beautiful effect of chiaroscuro, as in the one that Le Brun painted for himself, with still more fervor (both canvases are in the Louvre). The master died while the cabal triumphed; Mignard succeeded him in all his duties.The PainterLe Brun’s work is not only the testimony of a career – the most brilliant of his century. His style is male, serious, heroic, sometimes brutal at the beginning. The execution is broad, without the refinement of a La Hire or a Le Sueur, and the color less bright and warmer than that of most French masters of the century. The Brown is at ease in allegory, for which he immediately finds legible and living forms. This gift allows him to excel in the great decoration. However, realism never loses its rights; it inspires tasty pieces, especially in the works of the first period (for example the stove and the cat of the Sleep of the Child Jesus), but still in some of the maturity, as the staircase of the Ambassadors or the tapestries of the King’s story. The Project Manager. Brun could not have overcome his businesses without the intervention of many helpers. This explains some of the weaknesses in the execution, which is especially noticeable in the great decorations of the Versailles period. While Jean-Baptiste de Champaigne (1631-1681), Noël Coypel (1628-1707), Antoine Paillet (1626-1701), Michel II Corneille (1642-1708), Jean-Baptiste Corneille (1649-1695), René Antoine Houasse (1645-1710), etc., working under his direction, have preserved their individual mark, other painters, such Louis Licherie (1629-1687) or François Verdier (1651-1730), nephew of the master, reflect more directly its influence. Among the collaborators of Le Brun, it is also necessary to make the contribution of the specialists: Jacques Rousseau (1630-1693), who painted architectures in trompe-l’oeil; Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer (1634-1699), author of sumptuous still lifes; Belin de Fontenay (1653-1715), painter of flowers; without forgetting Adam Frans Van der Meulen (1632-1690), the painter of battles, to whom Le Brun entrusted landscape funds for his tapestry models.The official career of Le Brun overflows, as we have seen, the field of painting. The incredible wealth of his invention is illustrated by the drawings he gave to the talent of sculptors, carvers, carpenters, goldsmiths, upholsterers. In most cases he contented himself with providing them with “thoughts” which admitted rather great freedom of execution, but assured the unity of the decorative style which accompanies the most brilliant period of the reign of Louis XIV.
Charles Le Brun is a French painter whose career is inseparable from the reign of King Louis XIV, of which he was the director of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He is mainly known for his predominant role in the decoration of the Palace of Versailles.
Charles Le Brun was born on February 24, 1619 in Paris. Son of sculptor, it is in this discipline that he makes his weapons in the middle of the art. But it is by his provisions for painting that the young Le Brun is spotted by the Chancellor Pierre Séguier, while he learned the trade from François Perrier. He continues his apprenticeship at Simon Vouet, Nicolas Poussin, to finally perfect his apprenticeship in Italy. He returned to Paris in 1646, and quickly obtained many commissions such as “The Martyrdom of St. Andrew” (1647).
Hardly accepted by his peers in the 1650s, he is nonetheless very much supported by Séguier. His gigantic paintings offer him the opportunity to realize the decoration of the castle of Vaux-le-Vicomte between 1656 and 1661. This enormous building site contributes greatly to its fame, and to its introduction at the end of the years 1650 with the king Louis XIV by Mazarin. He began by making the royal entrance, then was entrusted in 1661 his largest project: the decoration of the Palace of Versailles. This mission will occupy him all the rest of his life, so much so that he is appointed director of the Royal Academy in 1663, then painter of the king in 1664. He will exercise his talents near the court until his death February 12, 1690, realizing in particular the sumptuous gallery of ice creams of Versailles.
Paris, France: A major exhibit organized at the Arab World Institute utilized modern digital techniques that give visitors a unique a virtual journey on some of the Arab world’s significant sights that have either been destroyed or is under threat. The exhibition runs between October 10, 2018, until February 10, 2019.
The resounding places of Mosul, Palmyra, Aleppo, and Leptis Magna represents not only as images of brilliant civilizations and mythical prehistoric heritage, as well as one of the numerous sites sacrificed and damaged by recent clashes and the madness of some extremists.
Created in a joint effort with the start-up Iconem, in collaboration with Ubisoft and UNESCO, the show’s exhibition puts together huge screen projections that provide the virtual reality experience, archived manuscripts and photos, and additional audiovisuals and statements from native populace.
The exhibit presents visitors on an adventure travel through time and space, delving into the magnificent past of these sites, until the recent past stained by devastation, and to a future with the possibility of rehabilitation allowing people to envision with a sense of hope.
The main point of the exhibit is to engage the civic society in the grandeur of the world heritage of these prime historical sites, and also to bring massive awareness regarding the stakes associated in safeguarding and ensuring this valuable and fragile wealth.
The 4 noteworthy locales significant of the Arab world highlighted in the exhibition:
Mosul, in Iraq, flaunts as the set of Nineveh’s ancient city with its Neo-Assyrian remnants, the burial spot of the prophet Jonah, its prehistoric city, and the Great Mosque of Al-Nuri with its inclined minaret: guests will have the chance to sightsee this ancient city recently taken back from the Islamic State.
The Pearl of the Desert, Syria’s Palmyra is a legendary Greco-Roman site that was as of late the casualty of significant devastation that stunned the whole world. By reproducing its remnants and displaying the excellent work project being carried out by field archeologists, the Arab World Institute is exhibiting how vital it is to preserve such ruins for humankind.
Aleppo, in Syria, is where Muslim empires from the Umayyads to the Ottomans succeeded each other, building structural jewels – the souks, Great Mosque, and its citadel enable guests to explore more than the archaeological site but rather an entire urban area of unrivaled heritage.
A remarkable location spot in Libya and the jewel of the Mediterranean in the third century CE, Leptis Magna is established by the Phoenicians and was referred to as the African Rome. The Arab World Institute offers a tour among the most outstanding structures of this tremendous spot.
The introduction of these sites brings to mind Middle East’s legacy, in its embodiment, multi-religious and multicultural, at the core of trades between 3 continents, and that it is part of the universal heritage of humankind. It is partly the goal of the Arab World Institute to stimulate that wealth and diversity, which to some, sees as a target.
During his trip to Paris, France, Chairman and Founder of Adgeco Group, Mohamed Dekkak, has recently attended the exhibit “Millennium Cities – A Virtual Journey from Palmyra to Mosul” to support the mission of the Arab World Institute in promoting cultural diversity and tolerance.
The Arab World Institute
The Arab World Institute was formed to be able to produce a solid and resilient cultural tie while promoting constructive dialogue amongst France, Europe, and the Arab World. A perfect place for the advancement of cultural projects, in cooperation with institutions, creators and thinkers from the Arab world.
James-Alexandre de Pourtalès
James-Alexandre de Pourtalès, known as Pourtalès-Gorgier, born November 28, 1776 in Neuchâtel and died March 24, 1855 in Paris, is a banker, diplomat and collector of Swiss art.
Coming from a large family of Protestant financiers, James-Alexandre de Pourtalès is the son of Jacques Louis de Pourtalès (1722-1814), a banker in Naples, and the countess born Rose Augustine Marie de Luze (1751-1791). He married on June 12, 1809 in Neuchâtel Anne Henriette Falconnet of Palézieux (1792-1836).
Purchaser in 1813 of the seigniory of Gorgier, James-Alexandre de Pourtalès is created count and named chamberlain by a rescript of Frederick William III of Prussia of November 30, 1814. It was he who freed the Bérochaux carts of charroi in 1822 and received as a sign recognition a bench to his coat of arms (removed in 1848) to the church. In addition, the commune of Gorgier granted him the middle class of honor. Member of the General Audiences (1816-1829), he settled in Paris in 1815. In his mansion, built in 1838-1839 by Felix Duban Street Tronchet, it brings together one of the most important collections of antiquities and paintings (including Bronzino, Rembrandt and Ingres) of his time, dispersed at auction by his children in 1865 according to his will. In 1806, he acquired the Château de Bandeville in Saint-Cyr-sous-Dourdan (Essonne), whose landscaped park was remodeled in 1833 by the landscape architect Louis-Sulpice Varé, of which he was the owner. one of the first known works. In 1809, James Alexander acquired for 150,000 Swiss francs the castle of Luins.
1846 – Half-size portrait of Count de Pourtalès by Paul Delaroche. This painting was photographed in 1858 by Robert Jefferson Bingham to illustrate the work of the painter, plate 47, preserved at the National Library of France.
Painter Paul Delaroche, 1797- 1856, Paris
Born in the Louvre into a family already illustrious in painting, Horace Vernet was perhaps the most popular painter of his time. Friend of the soldiers with whom he bivouacked, he had all his life the esteem of the greatest. Jerome Bonaparte, Napoleon I, Charles X, Louis Philippe and his family, Tzar Nicolas I, Napoleon III ordered their portraits. The king of Prussia has twice called him to him, and he is not until the Pasha of Egypt, who does not bring him to Syria to paint the Battle of Nezib in 1839.
These numerous travels across Europe and Africa have scattered an abundant work very early on. An entire room, the gallery of Constantine in the castle of Versailles was reserved to him by Louis Philippe to paint the campaign of Africa.
The author of our painting, Paul Delaroche himself was very early member of the Institute, in 1832, at age 35, thanks to a rapid and impressive success as a painter of history. He is also a remarkable portraitist. His portraits according to Charles Blanc “would be enough to establish his titles at the master’s degree, because all those who studied painting know that nothing is more difficult than a portrait, and that it is the touchstone of great artists. Gifted himself with a strong personality, Delaroche was made to understand that of others.
Also, not one of his portraits that does not betray a temperament, which reveals a soul. Sometimes wanting to express the proud stiffness of a minister for whom the forum was a professor’s chair, he uses contours felt he is a sure-fire man, precise to the point of drought, sometimes he adopts a soft, past and buttery touch, as if to respond to the ideas of gentleness and good humor inspired by the patriarch of Polish immigration. But always his character is all of a piece; he is painted as he is conceived, he is one. ”
In addition to an obvious quality whose absence would be difficult to explain, our painting has the exceptional character of representing a great painter filled with glory and consideration, by another member of the painting ghota. When he painted our painting in 1846, the fame of Paul Delaroche is immense, and has long since passed the European frontiers; he is a member of the academies of Milan, Vienna, St Luke in Rome, Amsterdam, St Petersburg, Naples, Belgium, Scotland and the fine arts of Prussia. The esteem of the two men is reciprocal and the admiration for the elder has gradually turned into a fraternal friendship, with a note of deference likely, due by a respectful son-in-law. Because It is also a family portrait. Eleven years earlier, January 28, 1835, Paul Delaroche married Louise Vernet, only daughter of Horace. In 1846, the two men had just suffered the same atrocious loss: Louise died on December 18, 1845; the ceremony was held on December 22 at Notre Dame de Lorette church in the presence of more than four thousand people.Paul Delaroche will never recover and the other portrait, opposite, in pencil and sanguine that he makes of Horace in 1846 is far from that of the conqueror bon vivant and willingly facecious to whom everything has always succeeded. The gaze always reflects the prontitude of observation and the lucidism which makes it possible to dominate the obstacles; but it is also borrowed from a deep sadness, perhaps to the limit of despair.Our painting is posterior of several months, since we see appear a beard with the chin still modest by its importance, comparable to the “royal” in the fashion under Louis XIII, and which announces “the imperial” or other “goatee” that he will keep until the end of his life; we are close to the second empire. This is also the time for portraits in black clothes, emanating from a new clientele made necessary by the narrowing of the large painting market; victim to the faith of a constitutional monarchy becoming economical and impoverishment, in every sense of the term, of religious production. Vanity is obviously not the slightest excuse for being portrayed for many enriched bourgeois. Although emerging from the same background, artists whose romanticism and culture willingly accommodated a more aristocratic patronage, tend to despise them.Although Delaroche has the happiness, or the intention, of painting only the most eminent politicians like Guizot, Salvandy, Remuzat or Thiers, the richest bankers like Mallet, Delessert, Hottinguer, Pourtalès-Georgier, the most powerful industrialists like Aubé, Schneider or Péreire.For this reason, no doubt, and despite its uncompromising accuracy supported by irreproachable technique, none of these portraits approaches the vulgarity or fierce caricature of Bertin the Elder. If it had been necessary, moreover, to create the exact antithesis of the rapacious flask which excited Baudelaire so much, our Horace Vernet could agree. Paul Delaroche, with perhaps his model, chose to represent the great artist, man of the world. The coat, a dark gray barely tinged with blue, can be seen at most. A subtle, dull monochrome translates a supple fabric, soft to the touch. More cuttlefish, the strict tie of a navy black is somehow content to continue the habit, without attracting otherwise attention by judiciously distributing the four white flashes of the table, the two more discreet emphasize the head.So that all the attention “sartorial” focuses on the refinement of the vest: result in as little space of a sublime management of tone-on-tone harmonies and oppositions, completed by the subtle reminders of the exact complementary ocher dark echoing the thin blue threads. The tie and the vest remain, moreover, the only singularities permitted in the uniform procession of the black clothes of time; sometimes a glove or the texture of a hat, but it is about accessories. The accessory whole is limited here to a discreet Rosette of the Legion of Honor and the stripes of the vest underlines the somewhat military rigor of a dazzling dandy romantic certe, but nevertheless capable of asceticism in his Bulimia of work. It is not surprising that the lighting focuses on the forehead of the great artist. The skeptical look, as well as the sobriety of the maintenance, express this ostentatious pride that gives the consciousness of an aristocratic superiority of the spirit. Before lodging at the Institute, Horace Vernet often received the elite of the Parisian society in the sumptuous villa he lived in Versaille. At the time of our painting he lives, as well as Paul Delaroche, rue de la Tour des Dames, in the heart of the district elegantly nicknamed “the new Athens”. It is necessary to imagine the quality of the turns of table representing a whole Olympian in black dress, of demi-gods of the art, poets, painters, musicians, actors, writers, reunited in the English coffee, the Riche coffee, or in the privately-owned hotels This area of the 9th arrondissement, still 160 years old, is surrounded by country corners and where for over half a century, it was almost all the other romantic celebrations of our history. Delaroche was barely 27 years old when he exhibited his Joan of Arc in the salon of 1824, which, in the words of Eugene de Mirecourt, immediately won him “one of the most famous artists of his time.” Follow the Death of Elizabeth in 1827, The Cardinal of Richelieu on the Rhone in 1829, The Children of Edward in 1830, Cromwell in 1831. In 1834, the Duke of Orleans, eldest son of King Louis-Philippe, is so satisfied with the Assassination of the Duke of Guise, that he spontaneously doubled the asking price. According to the Magasin Pittoresque of the same year, the Lady Jane Gray exhibited for six months at the Salon also arouses enthusiasm: “for many years, no work of art had yet achieved a success more popular than the Jeanne Gray” ( The Jane Gray and the Cromwell and the Hemicycle are commented on our html page Charles Baudelaire It was in June 1834 that Delaroche made his first trip to Italy, “to make his novitiate and reflect on the great examples of the past.” He stays in Florence, Pisa, Arezzo, Siena, and finally Rome where he is the host Horace Vernet then director of the Académie de France at Villa Medici. On his return from Rome, he resumed in 1835 the studio of his master Gros, whose suicide could be linked to the growing power and violence of criticism.Because of this, or the attitude of Thiers on the project of the Church of the Madeleine, or both, it distances itself from the Salon. He refuses to participate in that of 1836. The salon of 1837 will be the last for him. The semicircle of the School of Fine Arts, inaugurated in 1841 will remain the last public manifestation of his talent, after which he will abandon the great historical compositions. His reputation is made. His paintings are intended for an elite, preserved in the collections of royal families, the richest aristocrats, or bankers; no doubt it is in the middle of the nineteenth century the most famous and most appreciated painter of the western world. Louis Philippe entrusted him in 1838 with a commission of five paintings for the king’s pavilion at Versailles. The big business bourgeoisie is not left out. A prestigious Swiss collector, the Count of Pourtales-Georgier bought Cardinal Mazarin and Cardinal de Richelieu in 1831.Prince Alexander Demidoff is another glitzy amateur. Married to Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, Demidoff is the owner of the Temptation of St Anthony and later, in 1865, Lady Jane Gray; he is a sponsor and influential friend in Eastern Europe. Two important paintings leave in Central Europe: The Pilgrims of Rome thanks to Anasthasius Raczinsky, member of one of the largest families of the Polish aristocracy – the original version of the Napoleon in Fontainebleau is by another bought by the banker Heinrich Schletter. The painting will take a prominent place in 1858 in the background of the new Museum der bildenden Künste Leipzig. Thomas Baring is another amateur financier of Delaroche, the British one. Queen Victoria, perhaps influenced by the Orleans family also appreciates Delaroche. She buys him at least three paintings and afterwards will remain faithful to him, as well as other members of the British aristocracy, as the Dowager Countess of Sandwich, the Duke of Sutherland and his brother, future tale of Elesmere . The fourth Marquis of Hertford, who lived more readily in France between his hotel in the Rue Laffitte and the Château de Bagatelle bought at Louis Philippe in 1835, occupies a special place. He bought no less than twelve paintings, some of which came later from the Auction of Count Pourtàles in 1865, including the Richelieu on the Rhone and Cardinal Mazarin. This ensemble is today the most important gathering of Delaroche’s works. It was the subject of a recent study by Stephen Duffy, published in 1997: “Paul Delaroche, Paintings in the Wallace Collection”. The Anglo-Saxon researchers seem more interested in extracting Delaroche from the deep oblivion in which he was buried for more than a century. This phenomenon resulted from profound changes, both of taste and of sponsors. Emerging in France less than two decades after the disappearance of Delaroche, a new colorful range appears, freed from secular references to nature. The drawing, the anatomy, the perspective, the model become accessory, even academic and binding. It is not so much for the painter, to represent, but to “translate”. The simultaneous appearance in France of the first paintings dealers accredits this “modern” painting and manages to impose it on the Atlantic, where wealth is concentrated at the dawn of the twentieth century. century. Against all odds, this rupture, which was initially considered extravagant, to the point of being originally a crime, became the custom and suddenly, the last heirs of six centuries of evolution of European painting opportunely made figures. mold for merchants being broken), dinosaurs, pastists, academics, archaic or other retarded hijackers, guilty of not having known to see or understand the evolution of art etc. Another equally French paradox was more specifically prejudicial to Delaroche and Vernet who were his Turkish (x) heads. This is Baudelaire’s posthumous “sacralisation” with the extension that results from systematic eruptions and other divagations on art, including the distance between art, truth and morality, of which France is true is happening consistently; renewing since and until the nausea, the acclamations of September 30, 1938 … (commentary of April 2003).In addition to Stephen Duffy’s monograph, two other fundamental studies were recently devoted to Delaroche besides Channel: Norma Ziff’s thesis in 1977, and in 1997, the important work of Stephen Bann, professor at the University of Kent in Canterbury.Finally, a first pavé of nearly 340 pages in French appears in 1999, editions of the National Museums in collaboration with the cities of Nantes and Montpellier.
We know the gradual impoverishment of religious painting begun at the end of the 17th century. The brush at the origin, guided by the fervor passes between warmer hands, the communion moves away in proportion, one can not transmit what is foreign to you, and if it allows sometimes to reach the sublime, the Religious art more than another is inseparable from sincerity. Also the lack of breath is it a constant production of the nineteenth, contained in essence in repetitions, but which become insipid, in that they no longer overcome the pitfall of a sentimentality cutesy, disturbing, cleaner to to disconcert that to convert the last undecided.
The last paintings of Delaroche, which nearly disappeared with him memories, would be enough to buy this sinking. The credit goes to Stephen Bann for us to rediscover them and we greet the attention of Ladies German-Cosneau and Isabelle Julia who conclude their work by reconstructing what Charles Blanc described as a testament of the painter. These little paintings forever scattered, we arrive together and coherence and emotion restored thanks to the book and the magic of a photogravure of high quality.
Mrs Isabelle Julia to find the testimonies and comments of the time: by Barbey d’Aurevilly, Louis Ulbach and Charles Blanc on which it would be presumptuous to add. “One can not describe in words this scene of mourning, or the painter so strongly expressed, and with so much soul all the variants of the pain, the desolation of the holy women, the deep, but male and contained affliction, of Saint Peter, the tender despair of St. John, and the unbridled anguish of the Virgin, who, standing on her knees, gazes past the executioners.with infinite delicacy, the painter has made the virginal character of the motherhood of Mary, and I do not know what shade of respect for this son who is a God … The Return of Golgotha, The Crown of Thorns are still pieces of an unexpected beauty, of a lugubrious and penetrating poetry.This was the testament of the master “. This is a short excerpt from Charles Blanc’s tribute to the paintings that Delaroche painted in the last year of his life.To satisfy himself – according to Eugene de Mirecour – “freed from all the weight of traditions ordinarily imposed on those who treat such a subject (…) Delaroche designed to make a series of compositions on the death of Christ, but considered a new point of view, as if he had himself witnessed the tragedy.So he painted in small dimensions Jesus in the Garden of Olives, and The Burial of Christ. Then he represented the holy women on their knees in a dark room. At their head, the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus. They see through a window the pikes of the soldiers who lead the Man-God to the torture. In this deeply sad scene, the real pain is expressed with such sincerity that the soul, filled with this spectacle, asks the painter nothing more. Continuing this terrible work, the artist painted the Virgin returned to her room and considering with unspeakable pain the thorn crown dyed with the precious blood of her son. At last he was working on the last act of this dreary tragedy, The Fading of the Virgin Surrounded by the Apostles and the Holy Women when Death Suddenly Struck Her “.
The Saint Veronica is painted very early, also dated 1856. It is possible that Delaroche with it, wanted to recall the vanity of the stylistic evolutions undertaken since the middle of the fifteenth century. century.The subtleties for most of the oil painting were acquired, the anatomy and perspective mastered; a marvelous way of expressing reached maturity, and some quattrocento artists were technically able to reach the truth. The rest is a matter of heart, and faith, the canvas a convenience to come and Delaroche has exceptionally used a wooden panel, installing for perhaps pasticher Mantégna, Saint Véronique in a shortened scholar, built with the touch dry and meticulous of this master. The tone of the set and the opposition of a brushed background in large dark footprints dispel the ambiguity. But the message remains, of simple, intangible truths. Art for art, artifice, evolution itself is a farce, without the simple, but how much necessary possession of the craft. This manifesto may have deserved more echoes, at a time or is looming around, according to Barbey d’Aurevilly: “the sieves of the sun on the canvas and limiters of outlines, the material rage of the color which is the whole painting for vermilion drinkers.”
Only certainty, religious painting will never be rescued. But let us conclude, on the personality of the painter, the last words to Charles Blanc: “So, whether one examines one’s life or work, one always comes back to admire, in Paul Delaroche, a character, yes, a character, and this is rather rare nowadays, among artists as elsewhere, so that we take care.Reserved until the appearance of coldness, Delaroche was a generous and devoted man, an excellent friend, full of righteousness, disinterestedness and greatness of soul. Better than anyone, perhaps, we were able to know what he did, in 1848, to help his comrades. He then took for the others the role of solicitor, whom he was incapable of taking for himself, and resolved, besides, not to accept any work, in spite of the sudden withering away of his fortune, of which he did not speak. He wrote to the director of the Beaux Arts, on the distress of some of his pupils, letters filled with the eloquence of the heart, and which would throw a beautiful light on his biography.