Honorable Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Mohamed Dekkak Founder and Chairman of Adgeco Group, UAE
The life story of Majesty King Mohammed VI
A descendant of the Alaouite dynasty, from Yanboo Al Nakhil of the Arabian coast, His Majesty, King Mohammed VI, is the present King of Morocco. Descending from the prophet of Islam, Sidna Mohammed, by means of his little girl Lalla Fatima Zohra, the Royal family went to live, in the Sothern Moroccan in Sijilmasa, amidst the thirteenth century. His Majesty King Mohammed VI is the 23rd ruler of the Alaouite Dynasty, the rule of which began amidst the seventeenth century.
His Majesty King Mohammed VI, child of the late King H.M. Hassan II, is conceived on August 21st, 1963, in Rabat, made heir apparent and titled Crown Prince. The enthronement of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Sidi Mohammed Ibn Al-Hassan Ben Mohammed, King of Morocco, happened on July 30th, 1999. On 12th of July, 2002, the country honored the King’s stunning religious ceremony wedding with Her Royal Highness Princess Lalla Salma in Rabat. On 8th of May 2003, His Royal Highness Crown Prince Moulay El Hassan was born in Rabat. On 28th of February 2007, Her Royal Highness Princess Lalla Khadija was born in Rabat.
King Mohammed VI Education and Training
- At the age of 4, he started studying at the Koranic School of the Royal Palace.
- Attended primary and secondary education at Royal College. Graduated on June 1981.
- Attended higher education, taking up Law at the University Mohammed V of Judicial, economic and Sciences in Rabat.
- As a student, he received the First Certificate of high studies in political sciences in 1987 and a Second Certificate, in Public Law the following year, both two with honor.
- His thesis was entitled “The Arab-African Union and the Kingdom’s strategy in the international relations.”
- To be able to finish his training and exercise the rules of law and principles at the college, the Late King Hassan II opted to send him to Brussels with the Commission of the European Economic Communities President Mr. Jacques Delors, in November 1988 and spend a few months. Indeed, even at an early age, Crown Prince was constantly requested that by his dad complete diverse missions at various levels: national, African, Arab, Islamic, and global towards the head of states and friends. His Highness partook, consequently, in numerous international and regional gatherings.
- On 29th of October 1993, His Highness Crown Prince obtained the title of a Doctor in Law with distinction at the University of Nice-Antipolis in France. The thesis title was: “Cooperation between the European Economic Community and the Arab Maghreb Union”.
- An Honoris Causa Doctorate from the University of George Washington on 22nd of June 2000.
- The author of a book and numerous articles on the Euro-Maghreb collaboration.
- Languages: Arabic, French, Spanish and English.
- His Majesty the King Mohammed VI follows various sports.
Duties when he was a Crown Prince
Already exposed to difficult assignments since his early age, His Majesty, King Mohammed VI was frequently charged by his dad, with essential missions to Heads of State siblings and companions, and had gone to national, Arab, Islamic, African and worldwide gatherings:
- At the age of four, he went with his dad amid the official visit to the United States of America, which occurred on the 9th and 10th of February 1967.
- On April sixth, 1974, the first official assignment was given as a representative of King Hassan II at the religious prayer held at the Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral, in the memory of the French President, Georges Pompidou. He likewise spoke to his dad at the burial service of the Emperor of Japan HiroHito 1989.
- Visiting numerous African nations, from 23rd-30th of July 1980, to hand over private messages of his dad, to these presidents: Leopold Sedar Senghor of Senegal, ShehuShagari of Nigeria, Félix Houphouet Boigny of Cote d’ivoire, Ahmadou Ahidjo of Cameroun, Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinia
- Official visits Saudi Arabia, from eleventh to eighteenth March 1986, and to Japan from the seventh to the 21st March 1987.
- His Majesty spearheaded the Moroccan delegations to the work of a few global and regional gatherings:
- On the 10th of March 1983, in New Delhi, India, the seventh Summit of non-aligned nations.
- On 21st of September, 1983, in the Committee for execution of the A.O.U concerning the Sahara in Addis-Abeba
- On 3rd of October, 1983, the King went to the tenth Franco-African meeting in Vittel
- On 4th of May fourth, 1994 at the meeting of the advisory group on the event of the Commemoration of the 50th foundation anniversary of the United Nations in Geneva
- From 21st of June to 27th 1997, at “The Earth Summit”, an uncommon session of the General Assembly of the UN on nature in Brazil.
The King has additionally managed:
- Ministerial Meeting of GATT during the opening session April twelfth, 1994 at Marrakech
- The opening of the work of the National Commission for the Commemoration of the 50th commemoration of the UN on January twelfth, 1995.
- The end session of the meeting on “Relations amongst Morocco and Europe” on the 9th of April in 1996 at Paris, France
- On the 10th of December 1996 at the Inauguration of the Macro-American committee office of investments and commerce in New York
At the point when Crown Prince, His Majesty King Mohammed VI has been designated by the late King Hassan II.
- Chairman of the Organizing Committee of 9th Mediterranean Games in Casablanca (18th of March 1982).
- Commission Chairman charged of the Organization of Pan-Arab Games VI (11th of April 1985).
- General Military Staff of the Royal Armed Forces as Coordinator of service and offices (November 26th, 1985).
He has likewise been advanced by His Majesty King Hassan II, to the rank of Divisional General on 12th of July 1994.
The Kingdom of Morocco
Known as “a cool country with a hot sun,” Morocco is a gentle, semitropical environment in the northern and western waterfront regions that are isolated by mountain ranges from a desert atmosphere toward the east and south. The vast majority live west of the mountain chains which shield them from the Sahara Desert. In the harsher south, the populace is meager, gathered in scattered desert springs along the Draa and Souss Rivers.
Africa’s nearest gateway to Europe, Morocco lies about 20 miles away throughout the Strait of Gibraltar. Twice, it was the phase for intrusions of Europe-the Moorish ambush on Spain in the 18th century and the Allied attack on the mainland in World War II. Today, jet aircraft fly over trudging camel trains and ranchers working with executes unaltered since Romans were involved and administered the area. Urban communities offer customary medinas with tight, cobblestone lanes; the area mosques with their particular minarets; and also cutting-edge high rises, shopping centers, and tree-lined avenues. Morocco’s enterprising individuals produce not just a portion of the world’s most smart crafted works—from handwoven woolen rugs to lavish metalwork, from leathercraft to trimmed wooden items, from hand-painted pottery to gold and silver adornments—they additionally are vigorously required in escalated farming and gathering fish and other fish from its seaward waters. Morocco’s trees produce olives and stopper. The nation’s biggest export, be that as it may, is phosphates from the world’s biggest known deposit of this resource.
Enthronement as the New Moroccan King
Taking after the passing of His Majesty King Hassan II on 23rd of July 1999, the succession of His Majesty King Mohammed VI to the Throne as per Article 20 of the kingdom’s Constitution:
- The Ceremony of showing the BEIA (Allegiance) to His Majesty King Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan Ben Mohammed, Amir Al Mouminine, occurred on Friday, 23rd of July 1999, in the Royal Palace’s Throne Room in Rabat.
- The Enthronement of His Majesty King Mohammed VI, Amir Al Mouminine, occurred on 30th of July 1999. He officially performed the Friday prayer and affirmed His first Speech of the Throne, at the Royal Palace in Rabat. This date turns out to be, on the record, the Feast of the Throne.
Numerous ally nations of Morocco offered their most noteworthy national honors. To His Majesty the King. This include:
Spain, Italy, France, Burkina Faso, Brazil, Belgium, Tunisia, Mauritania, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, honoursQatar, Bahrain, Syria, Lebanon, Senegal, Cameroon, Argentina, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Mali, Gabon, Niger, Peru, Chile…
His Majesty King Mohamed VI has been presented with numerous award honors by foreign parliamentary foundations, global associations, and NGOs, specifically:
- Trophy of the International Association against Violence in Sport (IAAVS).
- Sports Magazine African champion awarded gold medals for the years 1988-1989.
- Awarded Medal of Honor for “Grenada 1999” by some groups of radio stations of the chain “SER”…
- South-American Football Confederation awarded Medal of high merit.
- U.S. Establishment Award “Helen Keller” who works in the social field, especially in the battle against visual impairment.
- Spanish Senate and Congress Medals
- Spanish city Almunecar presented Abderrahmane first prize, to the people contributing fundamentally to reinforcing the relations between the Arab world and Europe.
- ISESCO Logo.
- Abu Bakr Seddik’s High cordon, the organization of red crescent and red cross Arab affiliations’ highest distinction.
King Mohammed VI was conceived on 21st August 1963. He is the eldest son and second offspring of King Hassan II and his significant other Lalla Latifa Hammou. He was made the successor and was titled ‘Crown Prince’ from the day he was conceived.
King Mohammed VI formally gave the throne on the 23rd July 1999 after the demise of his dad King Hassan II.
A well-educated prince, King Mohammed earned his four-year certification in law in 1985 at the Mohammed V University at Agdal. In 1987, Mohammed got his first Certificate d’étudesSupérieures (CES) in political sciences, and in July 1988 he got a Diplômed’étudesApprofondies (DEA) in public law. In November of 1988, he trained with Jacques Delors, then-President of the European Commission in Brussels. In addition, Mohammed holds a PhD in law with excellent distinction which he obtained on 29 October 1993 from the French University named Nice Sophia Antipolis for his thesis project on “EEC-Maghreb Relations”.
Moreover, Mohammed was delegated as President of the Pan Arab Games on 26th November 1985 and was authorized Royal Moroccan Army’s, Colonel Major. He worked as the Coordinator of the Offices and Services of the Royal Armed Forces up until 1994. On twelfth July 1994, he was promoted to the military rank of Major General. He went ahead to come to be the President of the High Council of Culture and Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Moroccan Army around the same time.
The king is conversant in communicating in English, French, Arabic, and Spanish.
In 2001, Mohammed eventually married Salma Bennani in 2002. She turned into ‘Her Royal Highness Princess Lalla Salma’ in an amazing religious rite. A first in Morocco’s history, the royal palace made public the photographs of the occasion after the wedding by recognizing the new Moroccan bride. Preceding him the ladies were strictly kept away from the public eye and didn’t give individuals the chance to get see their photos.
In 2003, the Prince got to be a pleased father of the Crown Prince Moulay Hassan as the princess brought forth their first kid. The couple greeted their first little girl Princess Lalla Khadija, in February 2007.
‘His Majesty the King Mohammed the Sixth, Commander of the Faithful, may God gift him Victory’ became the official title of the ruler of Morocco.
King Mohammed VI is great companions with the King Abdullah II of Jordan. The two share a lot of similarities, as both of them lost their fathers around the same time and rose to the throne. They have been seen supporting each other openly a lot of times.
The king has frequently won honors for his work. He is the beneficiary of foreign distinctions including the Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in 1980 by Queen Elizabeth II. Individuals from the nation would admire him for the many positive developments of Morocco. It’s in his administration that ladies were given more power and managing the nation’s destitution by making more occupations. As a component of his imperial obligations, Mohammed invites royals from around the globe to Morocco.
The King has a great number of supporters on Facebook. The ruler has an official Royal page, much the same as other royals, however, the distinction is that King Mohammed beats the most prominent British Monarchy with regards to being well known on the social networking site. While the British Monarchy has somewhat more than two million fans, the Moroccan King has more than three million and developing, which is simply enormous considering the way that, about twice the same number of individuals live in the UK as in Morocco.
At the point when King Mohammed acquired the throne, he made heads turn with giving more power to ladies and achieving various changes.
The king puts his education training to right use as other than coming from a royal family he is likewise an exceptional banked and visionary business person.
King Mohammed VI on Social Reforms and Development
On 23 July 1999, Mohammed succeeded his dad as Morocco king, being enthroned in Rabat on 30 July.
Not long after he took the throne, Mohammed VI delivered a speech to his country by means of TV, promising to tackle the poor economy and corrupt practices, while making occupations and enhancing Morocco’s human rights record. In February 2004, he instituted another family code, or Mudawana, which allowed ladies more power
Mohammed additionally made the supposed Instance Equitéet Réconciliation (IER), which was tasked with investigating human rights infringement under Hassan II. This move was much awaited by numerous as a means of promoting democracy.
In a discourse conveyed on 9 March 2011, the King said that Moroccan parliament would get “new powers that empower it to release its delegate, authoritative, and administrative mission”. Moreover, the powers of the legal were allowed more prominent freedom from the King, who reported that he was impaneling an advisory group of legitimate researchers to deliver a draft constitution by June 2011. On 1 July, voters endorsed an arrangement of political changes proposed by Mohammed.
The changes comprised of the following:
- The Berber language is an official state dialect alongside Arabic.
- The state saves and secures the language Hassānīya and all the linguistic parts of the Moroccan society as a heritage legacy of the nation
- The Morocco king has now the commitment to delegate the Prime Minister from the party that wins the most seats in the parliamentary races, yet it could be any individual from the triumphant party and not inexorably the party’s head leader. Beforehand, the king could name anyone he needed for this position regardless of the race results. That was normally the situation when no party had a major lead or preference over the other parties, regarding the number of seats in the parliament.
- The King is no more “holy or sacred” however the “trustworthiness of his individual” is “inviolable”
- High authoritative and political posts (counting ambassadors, CEOs of state-claimed organizations, provincial and local governors), are presently designated by the prime minister and the ministerial committee which is headed by the king; before the latter solely held this power.
- The PM is the head of government and president of the council of government; he can break up the parliament.
- The PM will manage the Council of Government, which readies the general law of the state. Beforehand the king held this position.
- The Moroccan parliament has the control of giving absolution. Beforehand this was only held by the king
- The system of the judiciary is separated from the administrative and executive department, the king ensures this independence.
- Women are ensured “city and social” equality with men. Beforehand, just “political equality” was ensured, however, the 1996 Constitution concedes all natives equity as far as rights before the law
- The King holds complete control over the military, foreign policy and the judiciary, power for picking and releasing prime ministers and he holds control of matters relating to religion.
- All residents have freedom of thought, opinion, masterful expression, and creation. Beforehand just free discourse and the opportunity of circulation and affiliation were guaranteed. However, condemning or specifically restricting the ruler is still culpable with jail.
Morocco’s royal family is a descendant from the Alaouite dynasty. They have been governing Morocco’s kingdom since the seventeenth century. Members of the royal family are:
- (The King of Morocco) HM King Muhammed VI
- (The King’s wife) HRH Princess Lalla Salma
- (The King’s son and heir) HRH Crown Prince Moulay Hassan
- (The King’s daughter) HRH Princess Lalla Khadija
- (The King’s mother) HH Princess Lalla Latifa
- (The King’s first sister) HRH Princess Lalla Meryem
- (The King’s second sister) HRH Princess Lalla Asma
- (The King’s third sister) HRH Princess Lalla Hasna
- (The King’s brother) HRH Prince Moulay Rachid
- (The King’s sister-in-law) HH Princess Lalla Oum Kalthum
- (The King’s aunt) HRH Princess Lalla Lamia
- (The King’s cousin) HH Prince Moulay Hicham
- (The King’s cousin) HH Princess Lalla Zineb
- (The King’s cousin) HH Prince Moulay Ismaïl
- (The King’s aunt) HRH Princess Lalla Malika
- (The King’s maternal first cousin and paternal second cousin) Sharifa Lalla Joumala Alaoui
- (The King’s maternal first cousin and paternal second cousin) Sharif Moulay Abdallah Alaoui
- (The King’s maternal first cousin and paternal second cousin) Sharif Moulay Youssef Alaoui
The royal dynasty of Alawi has ruled over Morocco since the seventeenth century. In the mid-twentieth century, the European forces competed for control over Morocco. Sultan Abd al-Aziz IV disappointed Moroccans by collaborating with the Europeans and was removed in 1908. His sibling, Abd al-Hafiz, took the throne yet surrendered after the kingdom turned into a French protectorate in 1912. He was succeeded by his sibling Yusuf.
Yusuf’s child Mohammed V, who got to be sultan in 1927, was a regarded patriot. In 1953 he was dismissed by the French. However, the French returned Mohammed V to his throne in 1955. Morocco got to its freedom the next year, and Mohammed took the title as s King.
King Mohammed V passed away in 1961 and was succeeded by his child, King Hassan II. Hassan II was blamed for human rights violence. He is credited with keeping up solidarity in Morocco and progressing in the direction of peace in the Middle East. He survived numerous endeavors to topple him from his throne and allowed some vote based changes.
King Hassan passed away in 1999 and his child, King Mohammed VI took place. Like his dad, King Mohammed had verged on complete control over Morocco’s legislature. After rallies in 2011, the ruler proposed another constitution confining his forces. Voters acknowledged his arrangement, however, pundits said the progressions did not go sufficiently far and that the ruler still held the greater part of his power.
The king and his significant other, Princess Lalla Salma, wedded in 2002. Their child, Crown Prince Moulay Hassan, was conceived in 2003, next to a girl, Princess Lalla Khadija, in 2007
- Grand Master of the Order of Fidelity
- Grand Master of the Order of Muhammad
- Grand Master of the Order of the Independence
- Grand Master of the Order of the Throne
- Grand Master of the Order of OuissamAlaouite
- Grand Master of the Order of Military Merit
Mohammed VI has received numerous honors and decorations from various countries, some of which are listed below.
- Spain: Collar of the Order of Civil Merit (2 June 1979)
- Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic (August 1987)
- Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (18 March 1997) with Collar (11 April 2000)
- Jordan: Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali (March 2000)
- Mauritania: Grand Cordon of the Order of National Merit (April 2000)
- Mali: Grand Cordon of the National Order of Mali (14 June 2000)
- Spain: Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (16 September 2000)
- Syria: Wissam of the Order of Oumayid (9 April 2001)
- Lebanon Special Class: Wissam of the Order of Merit (13 June 2001)
- Cordon of the Order of Abu Bakar Siddiq of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (29 June 2001)
- Bahrain: Grand Collar of the Order of al-Khalifa (28 July 2001)
- Kuwait: Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great (22 October 2002)
- Qatar: Cordon of the Order of the Independence (25 October 2002)
- Egypt: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile (28 October 2002)
- Pakistan: Grand Cross of the Order of Pakistan First Class (Nishan-e-Pakistan) of (19 July 2003)
- Cameroon: Grand Cross of the Order of Valour (17 June 2004)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Equatorial Star of Gabon (21 June 2004)
- Grand Cross of the National Order of the Niger of the Niger (24 June 2004)
- BelgiumGrand Cordon of the Order of Leopold I (5 October 2004)
- Brazil: Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross of (26 November 2004)
- Peru: Medal of Honour of the Congress (1 December 2004)
- Chile: Collar of the Order of Bernardo O’Higgins (3 December 2004)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin of Argentina (7 December 2004)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III of Spain (23 June 1986) with Collar (14 January 2005)
- Mexico: Grand Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle (11 February 2005)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Burkinabé of Burkina Faso (1 March 2005)
- Japan Supreme Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (28 November 2005)
- Grand Commander of the Order of the Republic of the Gambia (20 February 2006)
- Republic of Congo: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Congo (22 February 2006)
- Congo-Kinshasa: Grand Cross of the Order of the National Heroes of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (28 February 2006)
- Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of the Three Stars of Latvia (14 May 2007)
- The collar of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud (18 May 2007)
- Grand Collar of the Order of Independence of Equatorial Guinea (17 April 2009)
- Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (1980)
On 22 June 2000, Mohammed received the honorary doctorate from George Washington University.
Key Achievements of King Mohammed VI
The Moroccan King has been praised across his country and throughout the world for Morocco’s development. Here are some improvements King Mohammed has been known for:
Morocco’s Family Code Reform: In 2004, King Mohammed championed the reason for the change of Morocco’s family code, the Moudawana, which is effectively a standout amongst the most dynamic laws on ladies and family rights in the Arab world today. In addition to other things, the Moudawana allows ladies joint obligation of the family with their spouses, and also rise to equal rights in marriage and access to the property upon separation. The code supports the participation of women in legislative issues and society. As of today, 17% of Morocco’s parliamentary seats are being held by women, and up from only 1% 15 years prior.
National Initiative for Human Development: In 2005, King Mohammed set up the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) to mitigate poverty, defenselessness and social rejection in the nation. The system utilizes a top-down way to extend medicinal support services, social reintegration, work training, and different assistance to Moroccans in urban and rustic groups living in severe poverty.
Diplomacy: King Mohammed has extended Morocco’s ties in Africa and the Middle East and has fortified Morocco’s longstanding tie with the US. Today, Morocco has participation agreements with nations throughout Africa progressing financial improvement, security, and religious balance. The King additionally extend financial aid and supports a project that trains Imams from Tunisia, Mali, Libya, Gabon, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, the Maldives and Nigeria on battling religious extremists.
2011Constitutional Reform: King Mohammed suggested changes in the constitution which included revisions to whittle down his political power, transfer energy to the areas, fortify of the power of the nation’s parliament, and lastly combine vote based system in Morocco In 2011, The Constitution was embraced by a national referendum.
King Mohammed VI Appeals for Greater Transparency in Humanitarian Act
(May 23-24) in Istanbul during a recent speech by King Mohammed VI addressed to the people, he called on the compassionate world summiteers to embrace a proactive way to help deal with humanitarian efforts which should be passed on with “greater transparency” and “unquestionable responsibility.”
This global event is occurring at a vital stage wherein the quantity of refugees and persons displaced on the planet is getting high, also “a great number of individuals escaping the scourge of war, the threats brought about by calamities and the unfavorable effects of environmental change or shocking financial conditions in their nations”, said the Moroccan Sovereign in a message delivered to the Istanbul world humanitarian summit.
To handle the anguish and tragedies coming about because of such circumstances, “consideration today should be given to measures that are feasible, utilizing a sound approach and embracing proactive, the forward-looking proposition that can advance humanitarian activity, without misuse for political purposes”, including King Mohammed VI.
The Moroccan King stressed, “Since the time that my succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Morocco, I have eagerly tried to make humanitarian work one of the mainstays of the Kingdom’s foreign strategy.”
“I am especially glad that Morocco has made important contributions to lightening the effects of philanthropic emergencies wherever they happened, particularly in the nations of the South,” he included.
“At whatever point the need emerged, Morocco was one of the first nations to extend charitable help to those influenced by armed conflicts or natural calamities, giving nourishment, meds and tents, furthermore sending transportable healing facilities, similar to the case in Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,Palestine, Tunisia and the to reduce the agony of our Syrian and Libyan siblings and sisters,” recalled King Mohammed VI.
Adding to these field operations, Morocco has been included in intercession and has looked to encourage dialogue and collaboration, notwithstanding taking part effectively in various UN peacekeeping operations, he remembered.
King Mohammed VI likewise referred to the presentation organized on the sidelines of the summit, demonstrating Morocco’s commitment to philanthropic work and missions did by Moroccan military contingents.
In any case, the Kingdom’s commitments in the area of philanthropy are not constrained to emergency help. Truth be told, “Our activity around there is a piece of a more extensive methodology whereby we try to lighten the affliction of defenseless groups through sustainable development for practical improvement, especially in sub-Saharan African nations,” said the Sovereign.
When attempting to manage evacuee emergencies around the globe, “we ought to keep away from the danger of displaced people being abused or denied their most fundamental rights, including the privilege to be counted and registered”, including the Monarch. He focused on that “this is a crucial methodology stipulated by international humanitarian law to guarantee global protection for displaced people, survey their necessities and discover the civilian nature of the camps facilitating them.”
The sovereign centered on the need to ensure evacuees – and nobody else – advantage from compassionate assistance and to guarantee that the help extended is not occupied or utilized for purposes that are harming to helpful activity.
This speech has shown His Majesty’s stand with regards to the present global situation, hence, King Mohammed VI calls for greater efficiency and straightforwardness in the area of humanitarian pursuit, together with true accountability and particular checking and assessment components.