Legion of Honor

Legion of Honor

Legion of Honor
Legion of Honor

 

History

The Legion of Honor is created, on 29 Floréal year X [19 May 1802], by the First Consul Bonaparte, in order to reward the civil and military merits in times of peace or war. This distinction, whose motto is “honor and fatherland”, replaces the royal order of Saint-Louis, abolished in 1792. The first hierarchy has four ranks (legionnaire called “knight”, officer, commander and grand officer). Since 1830, the administration of the Legion of Honor is placed under the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice (Directorate of Civil Affairs and Seal) but this attachment remains formal insofar as the Grand Chancellor has always worked directly with the Chief of State. Under the Second Empire, this tutelage is exercised by the Ministry of State. Since the 1962 reform, the countersignature of the texts of the Legion of Honor is attributed to the Prime Minister and no longer to the Minister of Justice, who nevertheless retains control of the budgets, which reinforces the idea that the Legion of Honor is an autonomous institution. The order is currently composed of three ranks (Knight, Officer, Commander) and two dignities (Grand Officer and Grand Cross). The Legion of Honor is awarded by decree of the President of the Republic, who is the Grand Master, on the proposal of the ministers, after examination by the council of the order. Order is currently composed of three ranks (Knight, Officer, Commander) and two dignities (Grand Officer and Grand Cross). The Legion of Honor is awarded by decree of the President of the Republic, who is the Grand Master, on the proposal of the ministers, after examination by the council of the order.Order is currently composed of three ranks (Knight, Officer, Commander) and two dignities (Grand Officer and Grand Cross). The Legion of Honor is awarded by decree of the President of the Republic, who is the Grand Master, on the proposal of the ministers, after examination by the council of the order.

The main texts relating to the Legion of Honor are the decree of March 1, 1808, the organic order of March 26, 1816, the organic decree of March 16, 1852. In 1962 the 80 decrees and orders taken since 1802 are incorporated in the decree. November 28, 1962 to form the Code of the Legion of Honor and the Military Medal which gives the Legion of Honor new statutes and is the basis of the current operation of the order. This code is then amended by the decree of 21 November 2008 consolidated to 29 May 2010. All of these texts can be found on the website of the public service of access to law Legifrance.

The museum was created on the initiative of General Dubail, Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor, and funded through an open subscription among legionaries and military medalists, whose success was particularly keen in the United States. It was inaugurated in 1925. At the initial core of the collections, made up of the funds of the Grand Chancery, deposits of national museums, were added, over time, numerous donations of collectors [coll. Maurice Bucquet (1860-1921), coll. The Tour d’Auvergne Lauragais, coll. Pierredon], but also donations made by foreign states to complete the existing collections [Russian Federation, Poland, finally prestigious purchases and dations [casket decorations of Cambaceres in 1982, necklace of the order Royal Palace of the Two Sicilies of Achille Murat in 2002]. Noteworthy since 2008, the deposit by Antonio Benedetto Spada of his collection at the Museum: this collection is undoubtedly the largest in private hands.

Description

The insignia, whose design is inspired by the cross of the Order of the Holy Ghost , is a star with five double rays enamelled in white, the ten buttoned ends. The star and the buttons are silver for the knights, in silver for the officers. The spokes are connected by a crown, silver or vermeil following the grade, enamelled green and composed of oak leaves (right) and laurel(left) and whose lower ends, crisscrossed, are attached by a node . The center of the star has a gold medallion with a head Ceres profile, symbolizing the Republic ( Napoleon  I st under the two empires, of Henry IV under the Restoration and the monarchy of July and Bonaparte, Consul, under the Second Republic ), surrounded by a blue circle , bearing the words: FRENCH REPUBLIC . The star is suspended from a crown of leaves (imperial crown under the two empires and royal under the Restoration and the monarchy of July ), silver or vermeil following the grade, enamelled with green and composed of oak leaves (this once on the left) and laurel (this time on the right). On the reverse, the gold medallion carries two tricolor flags with the inscription Honor and Fatherland(currency unchanged since the creation of the order) and highlight the order of creation date: 29 Floreal An X .

The badge is suspended from a red ribbon, which some believe inherited from the military order of St. Louis . It has a rosette for the officers. The size of the badge in vermeilCommanders, suspended on a tie, are half larger than those of the first two ranks. The commander’s tie is always worn alone around the neck (which is not the case of the other neckties of French commanders: national, maritime, agricultural merit, etc., which can be worn together). Great officers carry the officer’s cross with a plaque (commonly called “spit”) on the right side of the chest. The grand crosses carry the same plaque, but in vermeil, on the left side of the chest. Their gilt cross, almost double that of the first two grades, is worn in a sling, suspended from a large red ribbon that passes over the right shoulder.

In civilian clothes, the knights wear a red ribbon in their buttonholes, the officers a red rosette, the commanders a red rosette on a silver half-knot, the great officers a red rosette half-knot, half silver half-gold, and the grand- cross a red rosette on a half-knot in gold. The half-knot is colloquially called “sofa”.

The museum occupies a modern wing elevated between 1922 and 1925 on the site of the old stables of the hotel of Salm, overlooking the forecourt of the Orsay museum. The museum presents its permanent collections on several levels, in theme spaces dedicated to:

  • to the history of the palace and the creation of the museum,
  • to chivalric and religious orders,
  • to the French royal orders,
  • to the Legion of Honor, imperial orders and memories of the First Empire,
  • foreign orders,
  • orders, decorations and medals French from 1789 to the present day.

It is to this day, the only museum devoted to phaleristics .

 

Augustin -Yvon-Edmond Dubail was born in Belfort on April 15, 1851. He joined the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr on October 20, 1868(promotion of Suez, 1868-1870). Upon his release, Sub-Lieutenant Dubail joined the infantry and served with the 10th  Battalion . During the Franco-German war of 1870 , he took part in the first battles in the East of France before being captured in Metz in October 1870 and interned in Germany. Released in 1871, he was assigned to the army of Versailles. In 1873 was promoted to lieutenant Dubail and serves the 138th Infantry Regiment . He is admitted to the course of the War College , newly created in 1877. Ranked 51th  out of 67 in 1878, he won the North Africa to be used in the 1st  regiment of Zouaves . Back in France, Captain Dubail, excellent cartographer and geographer, is assigned to the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr in 1880, first to teach geography and then as assistant professor in the course of art and military history from 1883 to 1886. He was then called to the War Department to take up the duties of ordnance officer of General Boulanger , minister of war. Then he was posted to various staffs and infantry regiments. In 1901 he was promoted to colonel and took command of the 1st  regiment of Zouaves . Brigadier General December 1904 he commanded several infantry brigades until 1906. Dubail’s notoriety went beyond the military. He publishes books on military education and officer training. He is also the author of geography textbooks for elementary school. He also contributed to the illustrated Geography of France and its colonies of Jules Verne published in 1876.

The September 27, 1906, he is placed at the head of the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr . He is responsible for implementing the reform of the training of officers. Thus, before their two-year schooling at Saint-Cyr, student cadets are now obliged to perform one year of military service in a troop corps. When they enter the School, the Saint-Cyrians already have solid military knowledge, thus disrupting instruction and teaching at the “Special”.

The December 25, 1908Dubail is promoted to Major General. He first took command of the 14th  Infantry Division and was appointed Chief of Staff to the Minister of War, Maurice Berteaux the March 5, 1911. In May, Dubail becomes Chief of General Staff of the Army. Member of the Supreme War Council , Vice-Chairman of the Technical Staff Committee, Vice-Chairman of the Higher Military Commission of Railways and Permanent Inspector of Military Schools, Dubail is one of the most senior general seen on the eve of the First World War .

At the outbreak of war, he commanded the 1st  Army in Lorraine . He enters Alsace through the gap of Belfort and opposes the German advance on the occasion of the battle of Sarrebourg and the battle of the gap of Charmes . In early 1915, Dubail was given command of the Eastern Army Group in the Verdun area . From the month ofJulyhe points out the insufficiency of the defenses of the forts in artillery, but his warnings are ignored by the high command. Reached by the age limit, he was admitted to retirement in 1916. Military governor of the entrenched camp of Paris deMarch 1916until the spring of 1918, Dubail is Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor onJune 14, 1918. In the early 1920s, he published his campaign paper. In 1921, he created the Society of Mutual Aid to the members of the Legion d’Honneur, with the support of the President of the Republic Alexandre Millerand , to help the poorest recipients. Finally, in 1925 he opened the museum of the Legion of Honor in Paris. General Dubail died in Paris on January 7, 1934. He is buried in the Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris.

An avenue of 16 th arrondissement of Paris was named in his honor, the General-Dubail Avenue.

 

Honors:

French:

  • Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor
  • knight on June 24, 1886
  • officer on July 11, 1900
  • Commander of the Legion of Honor on December 30, 1905
  • great officer the February 16, 1912
  • Grand Cross the September 10, 1914
  • Military Medal on October 8, 1915
  • Commemorative Medal of the War 1870-1871
  • 1914-1918 War Cross , with two bronze palms
  • Commemorative Medal of the 1914-1918 War
  • Allied Medal 1914-1918

 

Foreign:

  • Grand Cross of the Order of Nicham Iftikhar of Tunisia (Officer in 1885).
  • big cordon of the order of Ouissam alaouite of Morocco.
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia .
  • Grand Cross of the Order of St. Agatha (in) of San Marino.
  • Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St. Sava of Serbia.
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle of Serbia.
  • Grand Cross of the Romanian Crown Order .
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit of Bulgaria.
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro.
  • Belgian war cross 1914-1918 with a bronze fin.
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Belgium.
  • Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (GCMG)
  • 4 th class of the Order of St. George of Russia.
  • First class (Grand Cross) of the Order of St. Stanislaus of Russia.
  • Army Distinguished Service Medal , United States of America (1919).
  • first class (Grand Cross) of the Order of the Rising Sun of Japan (1919).
  • first class (Grand Cross) of the sacred Treasury of Japan.
  • Grand Cross of the Polonia Restituta Order of Poland.
  • Grand Cross of the Military Order of Virtuti Militari of Poland.
  • Commander of the Swedish Sword Order .
  • Grand Cross of the Order of St. Benedict of Aviz of Portugal.
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit of Spain.

 

Ramón María Narváez y Campos (Loja, near Granada ), August 5, 1800 – Madrid , April 23, 1868 ) was a Spanish military and politician.

After having lived for a long time in France, he opposed the absolutist uprising of 1822, being a part of liberalism. During the First Carlist War , he took a stand for Isabel II , and rose in rank after having played a decisive role in the battles of Mendigorría and Arlabán.

In rivalry with Espartero , another general officer of the army of supporters of Isabella, who presides over the government from 1837 to 1839, Narváez must go into exile in Paris. It is there that he creates the Orden Militar española, a military association to overthrow the progressive Spanish government.

He returned to Spain in 1843, won the victory over Espartero’s troops on July 23, in Torrejón de Ardoz , near Madrid . In November of the same year, he is the target of an attack to which he survives.

He married, on March 24, 1843 , Marie Alexandrine de Tascher ( January 5, 1822 – Paris † August 23, 1868 – Madrid ), daughter of Ferdinand de Tascher ( December 22, 1779 – Orleans† December 14, 1858 – Paris ), Earl of Tascher , Auditor at the Council of State and Pair of France .

In 1844, when Isabel II became a major, Narváez was named president of the government, and played a big role in the drafting of the 1845 Constitution . He submitted his resignation in 1851, but was recalled in 1856, after the coup d’etat of Leopoldo O’Donnell , to preside over the government; he headed three different governments between 1856 and 1868, leading a repressive policy against revolutionary movements. Shortly after her death, Isabel II was overthrown by the 1868 Revolution .

Honors:

Spanish:

  • Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Carlos III
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Alcántara
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Ferdinand
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Sant’Ermenegildo

 

 

Foreign:

  • Knight Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor (Kingdom of France)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and the Sword (Portugal)

 

Emmanuel Marie-des-Neiges by Rohan Polduc (or Pouldu) is the 70th Grand Master of the Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem.

He was born in Spain in La Mancha (his father having exiled because of the conspiracy of Pontcallec in Brittany) on April 18, 1725.

He served at the Spanish Court and Parma during his youth. He was ambassador extraordinary to the Emperor Francis I. Knight of Malta, he was general of the galleys, bailiff and general of the land and naval forces. Brilliant legislator, he wrote the code which still bears his name and which is still today the fundamental source of the law of the Order of Malta. He reorganized the fleet and created a chair of navigation and mathematics at the university. He died in Valletta on July 14, 1797.

 

 

 

 

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