The Eiffel Tower
If you visit Paris, you will not be able to miss the Eiffel Tower. The true symbol of Paris from its height of 324 meters, it continues to attract visitors and especially foreigners. Located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, it represents the French technical know-how since 1889.
The Eiffel Tower is a tower in iron located on the Champ de Mars in Paris in France. It owes its name to the engineer Gustave Eiffel, who is the creator. It was inaugurated on March 31st, 1889, during the Universal Exhibition which took place in Paris that year. Its height is 324 meters, counting the antennas arranged at its summit.
Initially, the Eiffel Tower was to be destroyed after the Exhibition. Its number of visitors decreased a lot after 1889, and the drop in ticket prices did not change anything. Gustave Eiffel, knowing full well that his tower was in danger, took the initiative to use it to conduct scientific experiments, especially in meteorology. Then, the engineer installed an antenna for wireless telegraphy at the top of the tower. By proving the scientific interest of the Eiffel Tower, it discourages the authorities to order its destruction. The Eiffel Tower became again an important tourist site with the appearance of the mass tourism, in the years 1960.
The Eiffel tower weighs only 10 100 t, which is incredibly light: if one imagines a vertical cylinder able to surround the tower, then the aircontained in the cylinder is heavier than the tower! In other words, at 0 ℃ and at normal pressure, an empty cylinder capable of surrounding the Eiffel Tower would be able to lift it (see Archimedes’ thrust).
The metal frame of the Eiffel Tower comprises 18,038 prefabricated metal parts, assembled by means of 2,500,000 rivets. The main work to mount the tower was to put the rivets. To evaluate the progress of the work, Gustave Eiffel noted every day the total rivets posed during the day.
The Eiffel Tower is considered the symbol of Paris and France. It is the most visited paying monument in the world, with nearly 7 million visitors each year.
The concept of Eiffel Tower:
In the early 1880s, we think of a World Fair to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution (July 14, 1789). One of the engineers at the Eiffel Tower is Gustave Eiffel. Inspired by models of Eiffel viaducts, Maurice Koechlin had the idea of a tower of 300 meters (because 300 meters are 1,000 feet). The project has evolved a lot. At one time, to “beautify” (?) This tower, this unique pylon, one had to build at its base a very dome-shaped structure very flattened. Stéphane Sauvrestrehad also imagined to add two small side towers. On the foreground of the Eiffel Tower, it looks like a viaduct frame. Stéphane Sauvrestre will finally give him his final form.
Engineers of the Eiffel Tower
Gustave Eiffel: Engineer / entrepreneur
Maurice Koechlin : Engineer
Émile Nouguier : Engineer
Stéphane Sauvrestre : Architect
Bryan Runembert : Engineer / Contractor
The wind makes the tower swing slightly. According to the official website of the Eiffel Tower 1, wind gusts of 214 km / h were recorded at the top of the Eiffel Tower during the violent storm that shook Paris on December 26, 1999, and the maximum amplitude was of 9 cm.
On the sunny side, under the action of heat, the iron expands and tilts (very slightly) the tower on the other side. It is said that the top of the tower “flees” the sun.
At its inception, the Eiffel Tower was lit by lamps to gas. It will be necessary to wait until 1900, so that they are replaced by 5,000 light bulbs. These facilities continue to evolve with technical progress.
On December 31, 1999, a flicker was set up for the year 2000. It was supposed to be temporary but it stayed. Every hour, between dusk and 1am, the Tower flickers for 5 minutes. On that same day, the lighthouse was changed. A rotating beacon indeed projects light from the top of the tower. Its light is visible up to 80 kilometers.
In 2008, to celebrate the European Union, the Eiffel Tower is illuminated with 12 stars on a blue background, in connection with the flag of the EU Since then, a new lighting is done from inside the Tower: a real flicker. It lights up every day at nightfall of all colors.
The Eiffel Tower has been repainted 17 times since its construction, approximately once every 7 years. It takes 500,000 pounds of paint to repaint it entirely. This work mobilizes 25 painters for 18 months.
The history of the Eiffel Tower
The “Iron Lady” nicknamed by some, was originally built to represent the technical expertise of France at the Universal Exhibition from May 5 to October 31, 1889. It took 5 to build the Eiffel Tower from its conception to its final presentation. The Eiffel Tower has put at work nearly 250 workers spread over 3 floors. At a height of 312 meters, it was the tallest building in the world until 1930 before the construction of the Chrysler Building in New York (319 meters).
The Eiffel Tower was to last only 20 years then be demolished, finally, the scientific experiments and the broadcasting saved it and make it today the jewel of the French architecture throughout the world.
The reputation of the Eiffel Tower
What makes today the success of the Eiffel Tower is its view and its setting. More than 7 million tourists visit the Eiffel Tower each year. Of these, about 75% are foreign tourists. Since the Exposition Universelle in 1889, the Eiffel Tower has welcomed more than 250 million visitors.
Located on the edge of the Seine and the Champ de Mars, it offers its visitors a pleasant and soothing, but above all a panoramic view of all Paris. It is the 4th most visited monument in France (7.1 million visitors in 2014). Imitated but never equaled, there are many towers inspired by the Eiffel Tower, but it is indeed the latter that seduces most tourists.