The date of February 13, the day of the creation of the United Nations Radio in 1946, is now placed under the sign of the World Day of the radio. The eighth will take place on February 13 to raise awareness among the general public and the media about the value of radio or to encourage decision-makers to develop access to information through radio.
Since the year 2012, the day of February 13 is celebrated the World Day of the Radio. Initiated by UNESCO, this day aims to highlight the power of radio as a platform for education and freedom of expression and its vital role in responding to crises and disasters. This key date aims to celebrate radio as a medium, to develop international cooperation among broadcasters, to encourage major networks and community radios to promote access to information, freedom of expression and freedom of expression, gender equality on the airwaves.
This year, the theme of World Radio Day is “Dialogue, Peace, and tolerance“. Radio also contributes to spreading tolerance and overcoming differences to bring communities closer to common goals and causes, such as the right to education and the health of all. World Radio Day 2019 will be an opportunity to celebrate the importance of radio in the pursuit of a more peaceful and tolerant world.
Radio is a low-cost means of communication, particularly suitable for reaching out to isolated communities and vulnerable people (the illiterate, the disabled, the young, the poor), and which gives to all, whatever the level of education, the opportunity to participate in public debate. Therefore, it is important that she is in expert hands and eager to awaken and inform in all fairness. It plays a major role, especially in times of conflict, fostering stakeholder dialogue and supporting peace initiatives.
As mentioned earlier, it is inexpensive, requiring the implementation of relatively simple technology, radio is a medium that reaches remote listeners in all parts of the territory and nomadic groups. According to the International Telecommunication Union, more than 75% of households in developing countries own at least one radio receiver.
The origins of the radio
The origins of the radio are based on a collective work, which starts from the discovery of electromagnetic waves, the invention of the telegraph, and leads to the first materials used to communicate wirelessly. After months or years of research, it was in 1840 that Samuel Morse patented the electric telegraph, his assistant Alfred Vail invents the code says, Morse.
In 1866, Mahlon Loomis claimed the first wireless transmission in Virginia. Thomas Edison in 1883 invents the vacuum tube with two electrodes or diode, but without perceiving the benefits or uses including rectifying the alternating current. Edison was also much more interested in the use of direct current in lighting. 1886-1888: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz highlights radio waves through the Hertz experiment. They will be called “Hertzian waves” in his honor. 1899: Four years after his first experiments, the young Italian Marconi succeeds in the first telegraphic communication transmanche by Hertzian waves. Two years later, it was followed by the first transatlantic link (3,400 kilometers) between Cornwall and Newfoundland. Its system is quickly adopted by the British and Italian navies: the TSF becomes a technology adopted in a few years by the civil and military fleets.
The advent of radio broadcasts
On May 20, 1920, a large assembly of the Royal Society of Canada in Ottawa listened to a speech, music program and a live concert broadcast by the Montreal XWA station at a large long-distance radio event announced in the newspapers that morning and that will make a great noise in the country. Later that year, the first daily broadcasting programs began in England (Marconi Company), in the United States in Washington, DC and Pittsburgh (KDKA station), as well as in the USSR. In December 1921 Radio Tour Eiffel broadcast the first concert with a transmitter of 900 W with a wavelength of 2650 m. The BBC was founded in 1927. In October 1922, the Société française radio-électrique obtained the authorization to perform, on a trial basis, daily radio broadcasts. From November 6, 1922, are organized Radiola concerts that will reveal the broadcasting to the general public. Radiola emissions are carried out by the radio station of the SFR factory in Levallois with an emission power of 2 kilowatts18. In 1925, the radio was used for the first time for an election campaign by the American candidate Herbert Hoover. The first car radios appeared in the 1930s.
The roles of the radio
The radio during the Second World War had great importance despite a low presence in homes, there were in France about five million radios declared, only one home out of one hundred and fifty equipped with a receiver. Today the radio is much more widespread since it can be listened to everywhere and by all. There is a receiver in most homes, in almost all cars as well as in mobile phones, music players. Radio is, therefore, the most accessible media today.
An informative role
During the German occupation of the Second World War, the radio via news bulletins allowed the French people to keep abreast of the progress of the war. Thus Radio-Paris one or even the main French radio of the time in terms of listening diffused 4 news bulletins a day.
Radio also has an entertaining role
It has developed a lot with specialized stations like “Laughs & Songs” whose goal is only to broadcast music or funny sequences. On the other hand, today, the radio is free and therefore more subject to censorship; it is common to listen to programs in which the government is criticized and especially in which imitators or comedians openly mock about almost all political figures.
A vector of freedom
Radio as a vector of freedom by quoting some of those who have remained in history: Radio London which transmitted the communication to the French resistance to the darkest hours of the occupation, Radio Free Europe which allows the populations situated behind the curtain of iron to receive information dissimilar from that transmitted by the authorities, Radio Caroline who emitted from a ship or the epic of the free radios of 1981 and the end of the monopoly of State.