Having 3500 km stretch of shoreline, the Kingdom of Morocco holds a solid tradition of aquatic fisheries. In 2014, its state fisheries production amounted to 1.3M tons, making it Africa’s biggest maritime fisheries producer and gaining the 25th spot worldwide.
The fishery industry in Morocco contributes about 2.3% to the gross domestic product or GDP, creating direct employment for more than a hundred thousand fishermen. An estimated 3M Moroccan people depend on their life source on fisheries.
It is in this idea that aquaculture in the country is very promising. As early as the 1950s, some mariculture like sea bass, sea bream, and shrimp was introduced in Morocco which undergone expansive growth in the 1980s. It was in 2009, during the launch of the new national fisheries plan called Halieutis, containing provisions for vital growth in aquaculture together with continued work in sustainable fisheries, has carried out a new momentum for the fishery industry. Two years later, the government, in support of its ambition, also created a specific agency called the National Agency for Aquaculture Development.
Morocco’s plan to double seafood exports by 2020
The government of Morocco launched large-scale plans to solidify its fishery industry, planning to take full advantage of the nation’s more than 3 thousand kilometers of marine coastline, fronting both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Morocco, with its 3,500 km coastline, exports roughly 80,000 tons of octopus yearly, more than 600,000 tons of frozen, fresh and canned seafood and fish products valued at €1.6bn every year. It supplies each year 1.2M metric tons of pelagic fish which includes sardines. About 139,000 tons of canned sardine is being exported and valued to be at $390m, of which around half of it is distributed to other African markets. These figures helped the nation become the largest producer of sardine and exporter of canned sardines in the world.
Morocco, at present, is Africa’s largest maritime fisheries producer and the world’s 17th largest producer of seafood, fishing and harvesting a total of more or less 1.5 million metric tons of seafood annually. The fishing industry accounts for 58 percent of the country’s food agriculture exports and seven percent of its total exports. As per the National Fisheries Office, the fishing industry produced $1.59 billion in exports in 2015. The Halieutis plan seeks to grow the value of seafood exports to over $ 3.10 billion by 2020.
Aquaculture was first introduced to Morocco in the 1950s with fresh sea bass, sea bream, and shrimp farms in the Mediterranean, and began a slow expansion from the 1980s. Cultivation of these species is expected to grow alongside shellfish such as oysters, mussels, abalone, and clams.
In 2016, the Morocco king opened the nation’s first marketable shellfish hatchery and farm. Established by Azura Aquaculture, the two-acre facility is a portion of a more expansive program created under the Halieutis plan and will play a part to advancing the sustainability of resources in the Dakhla-Oued Ed-dahab region on the Atlantic coast. It will also support the marketing of shellfish farming and the processing and promotion of roughly 1,000 metric tons of clams, oysters, and abalone. Specifically, it is tasked with reducing the animal health risks in relation to the importation of these species.
A Spanish mountainous village located 7 kilometers off the coast amidst Estepona, Marbella, and La Serrania de Ronda mountain range, Benahavis is one of the most mountainous villages with more than 5 thousand residents and yet close the resort beaches. The border of Benahavis municipality almost reach the coast but is not a coastline itself. Its topography passes through Guadaiza, Guadalmina, and Guadalmansa Rivers.
The town derived its name from the Arabic “Bin al Havis”, which means “son of Havis.” Havis is an 11th-century Moorish prince who ruled in Montemayor Castle.
Historical Background of Benahavis
The history of this town dates back to the latter part of the 11th century when Benahavís was founded by Arabs around the fortress that they had constructed to protect the Eastern section of the Arab castle of Montemayor. The community was closely drawn with Arabic past of Andalusia, specifically with Marbella, the municipality to which it belongs till it was bestowed in 1572 by Philip II the so-called “Carta Puebla.”
Montemayor Castle played an important role in disputes between succeeding Arab leaders in Andalusia, due to its strategic location. Also dated from the same period, the 3 towers; La Leonera, La Reina, and the Daiden, were constructed in the same vicinity to defend the castle. These fortifications were very significant throughout the battles that were executed amongst the various Kingdoms in and around Tarifa de Al Andalus due to their strategic value where most of the Northern region of Morocco can be spotted and controlled from its walls. The structure overlooking even the African coast, with up to 100 km of seaboard visible in fine weather was tremendously useful at a period when pirate attacks were common.
The Christian period started in January 1485 when the Catholic Kings entered the Marbella city, intended to conquer the last Moorish territory in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula and keys of the city were handed over to King Ferdinand by Mohammed Abunefa after the signing submission.
The Catholic Monarchs trusted their protection to Don Pedro Villandrado, the first Christian mayor of Benahavís. Right after, it resulted to a clash between Marbella and Benahavís which continued for more than 3 centuries, up until in 1572 when Benahavís realized its independence from Marbella, the moment when King Felipe II presented it with the “Carta Puebla”.
Present day Benahavis
These days, Benahavís is a typical Andalucian town with its street layout preserved in original form and several monumental features that bear witness to its glorious past.
Benahavís also takes pride in its majestic natural landscapes that are a must visit such as “Las Angosturas”, a tight gorge where Guadalmedina River passes through. The local municipal economy highly depends on tourism, due to its neighboring Marbella. Benahavís offers excellent international cuisines, impressive golf complexes that are located in the boundaries of the municipality. These features appeal to a huge number of investors who have put their investments into different property developments in the area which has contributed significantly to the town.
Travel to Benahavís
To get to Benahavis, you can choose from various airports such as Malaga International Airport and the Jerez Airport. However, the closest airport to Benahavís is Gibraltar’s North Front Airport which is just 31 miles away.
If you want to know what fun activities, things to do or must-see places you should check out, check out the list below. Do include these interesting tourist spots in your Benahavís itinerary.
- Castle of Montemayor
- Torre Tramore
- Torre Esteril
- Torre Daidin
- Torre Campanillas
- Torre Leoneras
Benahavis, being recognized to be Costa del Sol’s dining room of the is a paradise for food lovers and drinking buffs with its various types of restaurants and international dishes. While the majority of restaurants usually serve Spanish meals, visitors can order Italian food, French cuisine, and Indian curry. Every restaurant is known for preparing huge portions and offering visitors a great value for their money.
For excellent food quality and superb service, you can check out the following restaurants.
- Los Abanicos Restaurant
- Amanhavis Hotel & Restaurant
For a more unforgettable experience, try to indulge on a food journey and sample a wide selection of native favorites like meat dishes (venison, veal, rabbit or suckling pig); dishes like Fish and Shellfish Zarzuela and other kinds of exquisite recipes. A lot of restaurants also offer these other dishes that are most recommended like T-bone steaks, veal sirloin steaks, oxtail and the hot Spanish sausage they call chorizo.
There is land in Andalusia where anybody’s dream getaway comes true. Bordered by sceneries of great beauty and with unmatched natural environments. Exuding the Mediterranean and unadulterated maritime tradition. Marbella is the place where grand experience is the best start to appreciate life and be happy.
Marbella is called the golden city in Spain. It has 30 km of peaceful Mediterranean beaches with Sierra Blanca Mountains in the background. Marbella is located west of the Malaga, which is the capital city of Costa del Sol. Around 300,000 people living in the city and approximately two and a half million people visit Marbella every year.
Marbella is well known for its harbors and pristine shorelines. The place is called Puerto Banus and it is where you can find many locals and tourists walking around, enjoying the sun, and relaxing the lines of chic restaurants and cafes. The place becomes more alive at night as it also has plenty of bars. For those who love to shop, Marbella is a place to go as it has easy access to top designer stores. They can be found around the corners of the streets.
During the old times, Marbella was a small mining town. Now, it has grown into one of the most enchanting tourist spots on the Costa del Sol. The history is really prominent in its narrow cobblestoned streets and flower-ornamented plazas, which are filled with delightful shops selling all arts and crafts. One of the loveliest spots is the renowned Orange Square, which is located just off the main street and is home to the 16th-century town hall.
There is an old town in Marbella, which Spanish Christians retook from the Muslim invaders back in the 15th century. The place still has the remnants of Muslim arts and architecture and the people who visit the place without researching about the history of the old town will be surprised. It is very uncommon for a city that is associated with the contemporary world and wide-ranging tourism to successfully keep the treasures of the past. The old streets exhibit asymmetrical outline that is predominant during the Arabic era, while it ends to open squares, which are designed right after the Occupation of Christians.
Luxury is what best describes Marbella for its grand mansions and hotels. It is home to Royalties, Hollywood celebrities, and wealthy tycoons. Marbella’s hotels are what attracted the movie stars back in the 50’s. Here you can find the world famous Marbella Club Hotel and to prove its Muslim heritage, there are structures built by Muslim Royalties like the mosque of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia as well as the white house which was built to serve as his summer residence. The mosque is a gift to the people of Marbella. There is a place called Golf Valley, which has the most number of courses than any other places in the world.
The climate in Costa del Sol, especially in Marbella, is said to give the finest microclimates among the cities, with neighboring highlands shielding this city from icy winds. Therefore, Marbella has the right taste of summertime and wintertime. The people who decided to live forever in the city appreciate the mild winters, as well as those who just want to pass their winter break away from their country.
Another thing that cannot go unnoticed to the visitors is the friendliness of the local Malagueños. They are jovial and enjoy the experience with the visitors who are generally from other countries or parts of Spain. They welcoming and have a tradition of cordiality that is rooted. The people are astonishingly accepting of all people, as there are mosques, Christian churches, shrines, and synagogues found anywhere in the city. The locals love conversation and celebrations. They relish gastronomic food and their local dishes also have a distinct taste of mixed culture.
Marbella’s history, its people, its streets, and its hidden beauty spots and monumental strength make it a place where the light of the dazzling sun shines incessantly. The bewitching power of the sea in Marbella embraces anybody from the first instant. It is a place for those who dream to live close to the stars, to live a life full of opportunities and feel deep inside the magnitude of peace and inner tranquillity.
What is Organic Farming?
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system used to boost the production and condition of different communities in the agro-ecosystem, such as plants, soil organisms, people and livestock. The method is a holistic system of not using antibiotics, growth hormones, fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms. Its primary goal is to improve enterprises that are well-balanced and sustainable with the ecosystem.
Basic Principles of Organic Farming
- Protects the environment by minimizing erosion and soil degradation, cutting pollution, promoting a good state of health, and optimizing biological diversity and activity
- Relying on renewable resources in locally organized agriculture systems
- Maintains longer fertility of soil by boosting conditions of the soil
- Deliver careful attention to promoting the health and needs of livestock
- Recycle materials and sources to the best extent possible
- Careful preparation of processing and treatment of organic products to sustain the organic integrity and essential product qualities in every stage of production
Organic farming encourages the utilization of cover crops, crop rotations, and promotes a balanced host/predator relationship. The nutrients and organic residues sourced from the field are recycled back to the soil to maintain soil’s organic matter, and fertility, cover crops, and composted manure are used. Farmworkers practice preventative insect and disease control methods such as improved genetics, crop rotation, and resistant varieties. Some significant tools in organic farming include soil conservation systems and integrated pest and weed management.
As a rule, organic standards forbid products resulting from animal cloning and genetic engineering, artificial pesticides or fertilizers, and more. These prohibited practices and products should not be utilized on certified organic farms for no less than three years before the harvest of the verified organic products. Also, livestock should be raised organically and consumed 100 percent organic feed ingredients.
Why Buy Organic?
People buy organic foods for a variety of reasons. Some want to get food products that have no chemical pesticides or produced with no conventional fertilizers. There are a few who want to try new products. Other consumers consider the environmental issues, product taste, wanting to avoid foods from genetically engineered organisms that they prefer buying organic food products.
And while organic farming also raises a lot of challenges as certain products are more difficult to grow organically than others, almost all goods can be naturally produced.
Benefits of Organic Farming
Organic produce appeals to consumers looking for a healthier approach to food consumption. Thus organic farming can be rewarding. But beyond the ethics and business sense, such practice reaps some significant environmental benefits. The industry’s research development continues to discover evidence that supports the various health advantages of organic farming throughout the world.
Here are a few of the crucial benefits wherein organic agriculture and organic products are beneficial for the people and great for the earth.
- Fights Climate Change
Based on innovative research, organic soil has a dominant role to play in fighting climate change. The study reveals that organic soil stores significantly larger amounts of carbon than conventional soil, it locks away carbon and keeps it out of the atmosphere for longer than conventional farming.
National Soil Project at Northeastern University collaborated with The Organic Center and compared more than a thousand soils from conventional and organic farms to understand how the two agriculture management practices affect the elements of soil organic carbon.
- Feeds the World Sustainably
Researchers from Switzerland’s Research Institute of Organic Agriculture presented their study indicating that worldwide move to organic farming mixed with cutting off livestock feed from fertile farmland, and sizeable reduction in food scrap, will aid in feeding the world more sustainable in the future. The study’s conclusion, made public in the journal Nature Communications, reveals organic farming can support in providing adequate food and mends environmental impacts, as long as enough high quantity of legumes is produced.
- Protects the Health of the Farmers
According to the research of Science of the Total Environment that studied the impacts to man’s health overexposure to pesticide, there are several diseases generated from the environment such as short-term effects like headaches, nausea, eye and skin irritation, dizziness, and also long-term effects like asthma, cancer, and diabetes. The people that were part of the research called for the advancement of substituting biological pesticide and developing Integrated Pest Management techniques that do not depend on pesticides. Opting organic production means ruling out the utilization of poisonous, synthetic pesticides that significantly lessens the danger to the hardworking farmers who provide food on our tables.
- Promotes Biodiversity
According to studies put out by Global Change Biology discovered that organic farming helps biodiversity. Based on information gathered from across the globe, the study realized that in general, organic farms and fields with high-level of plant diversity grew both the abundance and the number of species of valuable insects like pest predators and pollinators. The organic vineyards in Spain according to a study issued in the scientific journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment found that it serves as a home to more plants and butterflies compared to their conventional counterparts. The Japanese study confirmed this discovery stating that bird diversity is more abundant on organic as opposed to traditional apple orchards.
- Fights Antibiotic Resistance
Organic farming fights antibiotic resistance in many ways. Researches indicate that through eliminating the use of antibiotic in organic farms, livestock production, and food harbor fewer antibiotic-resistant bacteria than traditional. A recent study in Microbiology found that pigs bred on organic farms have substantially fewer strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as Campylobacter which can infect man from livestock, than pigs grown traditionally. Also, the latest study also states that herbicides commonly used can have the unintended effect of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and emphasized that organic can fight antibiotic resistance using the prohibiting most herbicides.
Because more people are concerned nowadays about the environmental toll of pollutant-heavy conventional farming methods, organics are turning out to be more popular as a lot of consumers are discovering organic farming’s tremendous benefits for individual health and the environment by choosing organic produce. Reports from people who have consumed organics said that their food taste and nutrition improved due to eating organically grown vegetables. Also, many people today choose to control their exposure to pesticide’s chemical residues on conventional crops.
The Kingdom of Morocco has introduced a sustainable development policy that shares a role in the long-term environmental strategy that it aimed to protect the country’s environment and natural resources, the constant government control of nature at the local level and the operations development intended to improve the citizens’ natural living environment.
Morocco has put its place as among the African nations at the forefront for environmental protection and implantation of eco-friendly policies with prominent projects that likewise appeals some sizeable foreign investments from The United States, Europe, and China. Two of them includes Africa’s biggest wind park and a massive solar thermodynamic system set at the Sahara Desert for which 2.6 billion dollars has been capitalized.
One more large-scale project of converting six hundred mosques in Morocco to become green buildings by 2019 is on its way with the collaboration of the Ministry of Islamic Affairs in Rabat and the government of Germany. The project will begin with huge cities like Fez, Rabat, Casablanca, and Marrakech, with the first hundred religious Islamic buildings. This green wave will later on also reach the country’s small villages.
The project’s concept is pretty simple – to replace lighting systems with low-power and lamps that can last longer as well as to put in place power systems for clean energy and hot water. These are Interventions that will greatly reduce the electricity cost by as much as 40%. Mosques can become the great model of sustainable architecture as these are places where many communities gather. Hopefully, these ideas can be reproduced.
To supply all government buildings with renewable energy by 2030 is an additional object of the administration. Furthermore, green investments are available to promote the sustainable tourism. In the words of the General Director of the National Agency for Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency of Morocco, Said Mouline, “They are little steps but that’s what we are doing.”
Morocco Ahead on Sustainable Development Efforts
The Kingdom has a solid background in acquiring the environmental solution to its power essentials and growth targets. The nation remains in demonstrating that it remains a champion in climate change, and thus its initiatives have been internationally recognized. In accordance to an article published in a news organization, the Kingdom of Morocco is leading a renewable transformation as verified by the Climate Change Performance Index of Germanwatch, when the country ranked 8th in its list worldwide and leading the emerging economies.
As far as the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Morocco is doing a great lead. Altogether, the country has also stressed its allegiance to Africa and made an extra effort to concentrate world attention on tackle advancement and sustainability matters in developing nations, including the push for South-South cooperation in addressing these needs.
With initiatives remain to connect, Morocco is an ideal setting to hold conferences aimed at renewable energy and sustainable development in developing countries.
After successfully carrying out the COP22 or 22nd Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change wherein King Mohammed VI took a lead on a side session for African officials, the kingdom stands to continue its solid support. Agadir city hosted the 2nd annual Climate Chance Summit from September 11-13, 2017, whilst over two thousand non-state actors from almost 80 nations convened to talk over their responsibilities in keeping national-level commitments to fight global warming.
Morocco also led the negotiations on international trade and development chapter. There is a crucial value in solidifying the capacities of developing countries in the areas of statistics to keep an eye on the execution of sustainable development goals in these countries.
With a proactive foresight to improve Africa in a way that each African can get access to inexpensive housing and the continent can be regarded as the most advanced regions of development in the world real estate map, the 2017 Hotelier Summit (North Africa) in Casablanca was organized from October 4-6 focusing on sustainability in the hospitality and real estate sector. The country’s Green Building Council serves as the Official Sustainability Partner of the Summit.
Casablanca also hosted the Africa Renewable Energy Forum on November 29-December 1, which gathers the government and private group to delve into useful solutions on clean project funding, climate-smart solutions, and inventive community projects throughout the continent of Africa in the framework of COP22 commitments.
The first African country to host such summit that gathers together professionals and scientists from Africa and global public, the 7th Digital Earth Summit was set last 17 until 19 of April in El Jadida, carrying the theme “Digital Earth for Sustainable Development in Africa.”
Together with both the developed and emerging countries, solid leadership is required to work on global warming and answer the needs of energy using sustainable development. Let Morocco show the world how.
The industry renewable energy is going through constant momentum in the Kingdom, stated Aziz Rebbah, the country’s Minister of Energy, Mining and Sustainable Development.
Rabbah recalled during a familiarity seminar about the solar energy in the agricultural sector on the various benefits of utilizing green energy regarding, innovation, investment, employment, industry, entrepreneurship and scientific research.
The minister stated further that because of the development accomplished in renewable energy, the nation is well on its way to aiming African and global markets as a result of Moroccan expertise, bigger projects launched and funding and assistance mechanisms were set.
As per the Director General of the Moroccan Energy Efficiency Agency or AMEE, Said Mouline emphasized the country’s efforts to trim down energy costs and made sure the balanced usage of energy, in agriculture in particular.
Emphasizing the need call for awareness among investors in the agriculture industry, Mouline evaluated several collaborations established by AMEE to assure energy efficiency, which among the key focus of the newly adopted strategy on national energy.
United Nations Development Program or UNDP representative applauded Morocco’s initiatives to foster the green economy and guarantee energy efficiency, highlighting the Kingdom’s involvement to obtain significant solutions to sustainable development obstacles.
The Union Road Association is a non-profit organization that is centrally based in Morocco. The aim of the organization is to create awareness and educate people all around the world to join hands to facilitate the handicapped and disabled citizens of Morocco. The association is concerned with utilizing the available tools, skills, sources and conduct extensive research work to truly apprehend and meet all the potential needs of the disabled people.
The Union Road Association is a non-profit organization. The organization is centrally based in Morocco. The Association first became operational in the year 2015. Ever since then it has been involved in making the lives of hundreds of physically or mentally disabled people better! The company is not a wide-scale organization but is a rather restricted organization with a handful of officials on the team. All other people who wish to join or serve alongside the organization are welcome to become part of the organization as a volunteer. The visionary mind, one of the founders and the honorary president of the association is Mohamed Dekkak has dedicated all his time, money, efforts and hard work to make Morocco better in every way possible. Union Road Association is one of the many causes Mohamed Dekkak leading in the country. The official website of the organization unionroad.org holds all mandatory information relevant to the association that is worth knowing about!
The Motto of the Union Road Association
There is only one single motto on which the Association has been functioning ever since it first became operational. The motto is to promote and spread joy and happiness amongst the handicapped people. There is no other purpose that the Union road association for handicapped people works for. The disabled and handicapped citizens, of not only Morocco but all around the world, have an increased tendency for depression, anxiety, and other psychological problems as a result of being deprived and lack of attention from people. The aim of the association is to, however, help the people of Morocco who are living with any disability, bringing joy to their life. People who are handicapped can also live a happy and fulfilling life. They can feel normal if they are made to felt normal!
The Policy of Union Road Association
Our policy at the Union Road Association is to bring happiness and joy into the life of people who are born with special needs or are this way because of some unfortunate event in their life. We do not help these people by providing them with financial aids or funding. In fact, our aim is to educate and empower them by offering them equal education and work opportunities for other people. The whole idea is to put people with special needs on the right track to help them build a better quality of life for themselves and paint the future bright!
Involvement with Union Road Association
As the honorary president of the Union road association, Mohamed Dekkak plays a pivotal role in the organization. He is the leader and the visionary mind behind the efficient running of the organization. The Union Road Association is an organization for the disable and handicapped. Mohamed Dekkak is one of the pioneers of the organization and is also actively involved in making the foundation work for the betterment of the disabled people of Morocco. He is a leading an entire expert team and is actively working to create opportunities for the handicapped people to help them live a better life. His whole idea is to spread happiness and joy amongst the less privileged, handicapped and people who are living with special needs.
Role as Honorary President in Union Road Association
The honorary president is one of the most important and pivotal positions for any organization. The person acting as the honorary president does not only enjoy immense liberty and freedom of operation but also holds immense responsibility on his shoulders to contribute to the efficient running of the organization in the long run. Mohamed Dekkak is the founder, pioneer and the honorary president of the Union road association. As the forerunner of the organization, he plays a very important role for the association on a wide scale. Let’s take a look at the roles and responsibilities that lie on the shoulders of Mohamed Dekkak as the honorary president of the Union road association.
The main purpose of appointing an honorary president for any organization is to appoint a head for the governing body. This person will overlook all activities that are carried out by the governing body to regulate the functionality within the organization. As Mohamed Dekkak holds this position for the union road association, he plays the same role for the organization.
By the international law, Mohamed Dekkak is appointed an honorary president for one year. However, since the organization has been functional ever since 2015, thus Mohamed Dekkak is being re-appointed to the same position for the firm every passing year. As the honorary president of the organization, the following are some of the pivotal role and responsibilities that fall onto the shoulders of Dekkak.
- Mohamed Dekkak is responsible for the governing body of the organization. He has the duty to overlook every activity that happens on the chair body level of the organization. Even if the president is not able to be present on every single functional day, it is important to remember that he is liable to get all reports of the days’ proceedings and will take action for future vendors accordingly.
- He is responsible for taking all important decisions for the organization. No activity, event or any other function can be carried out by the association without the consent or approval of the honorary president. So even if the president is not taking the decisions and other senior executive members are bringing forth their ideas, it is important to remember that nothing can proceed forward without the consent of the honorary president. All decisions for the organization, in relevance to all future activities, events, tasks and organizational plans will be implemented once they have been approved by the president.
- As honorary president, Mohamed Dekkak is obliged to be present at all meetings with the governing chair body of the organization. He is particularly liable to attend all meetings with other executive members of the organization, for instance, the vice president. He can, however, ensure a presence in either physical or virtual way. However, the president needs to be responsible enough to be present at all meetings and forums that are arranged to discuss the past, present and future activities of the organization.
The Message of Honorary President
On behalf of the Union Road Association, the honorary president, Mohamed Dekkak has a message to share with the world. Mohamed Dekkak sends out a message for the Union road association stating that we here at the organization have a deep vision. We want to life and life experiences worthy of people. There are countless individuals in our society that are living with physical disabilities and limitations. We wish to make these disabilities are a strength for the people rather than a limitation or weakness. The association is dedicated to improving the quality of lives for people. The association is dedicated to remove all barriers and create a meaningful life for the disabled. The whole intention is to create the world where the disabled people can live and prosper just like anybody else.
The union road association is dedicated to removing all hurdles that might stop the handicapped individuals from progressing or excelling in life. The foundation is committed to making Morocco and this entire world a worthy place for all such people to live and build a future in. We are striving to help the handicapped people live a life to their maximum potential and abilities. The organization intends to offer equal opportunities for every individual of the Moroccan society to access resources and take advantage of the opportunities that are provided to them to help them excel in life.
The truth is that we live in a society that is rich and does not lack resources. We have adequate resources in our society that are enough to facilitate any person; healthy, sick, handicapped or normal to flourish and excel in life. Every individual in the world has something unique and special about them, and the Moroccan society is no different. Every handicapped or person with special needs in our society has something very special about them! We want to bring all the skills and abilities of all such people to use to create a stable and strong community.
Hence, as an executive team, we had the vision to work for the betterment of the people who are born or get disabled in their lifetime because of any mishap or tragic incident in life. It is important to remember that the betterment of the individuals will automatically contribute to the progress of the society on the whole. Therefore, we intend to work to achieve the objective of social welfare that is the foundation of our work as well. The highlight of our vision is that it is intended to create balance and equilibrium in the society. Hence, the union road Association is actively working to fulfill dreams and accomplish goals on a large scale.
The Vision of Union road association
The vision of the Union road Association for handicaps is to create awareness on a global scale about the needs, necessities, and requirements of the disabled and needy people. This is a non-profit organization that is purely working with the intention to facilitate the disabled members of the society. We are committed to work for the betterment of the people and to give them a happy life. The aim is to encourage joy and happiness amongst the handicapped people. There is no other purpose that the Union road association for handicapped people works for. The disabled and handicapped citizens, of not only Morocco but all around the world, have an increased tendency for depression, anxiety, and other psychological problems as a result of being deprived and lack of attention from people. The aim of the association is to, however, help the people of Morocco who are living with any disability, to bring joy into their life. People who are handicapped can also live a happy and fulfilling life only if they are given a chance to do so. We at the Union Road Association are providing them with the chance that they need to excel and progress in life.
We wish to work to make the disabled members of the society a normal part of it. We want to work to provide them with independence and power to operate on a wide scale. The idea is to impart happiness in the handicapped and disabled individuals so that they can spread it around themselves as well. The handicapped individuals of the society can flourish progress and grow as equally as any other normal individual of the society. The only condition is that they are given the equal chances to grow as well. These people might require help and assistance from a young age, but this is only needed so that they can be independent in the later coming years of their life.
We are committed to fighting all barriers that might be a hurdle in way of the progress of these individuals. Hence, we are working to give them the chance of progress so that they can later become an independent entity of the society rather than a dependent burden. The core purpose of social services is to encourage people and create a workforce that contributes to the betterment and progress of the society. We encourage equality, and by equality, we do not mean to favor any particular gender and do not talk about gender biases. Instead, we are dedicated to creating equality by creating independence amongst people. We wish to make the disabled and handicapped people independent and responsible.
How is Union Road Association improving the quality of lives?
Mohamed Dekkak is the visionary mind behind the association. The organization is truly dedicated to making the quality of life and living better for the disabled, handicapped and people with special needs living in Morocco. As a rich cultural state, Morocco does not lack opportunities or adequate resources that are required for a happy, fulfilling life. The amazing thing about the union road association is that it is making life happier for the handicapped and disabled people by allowing them to live a life that is NORMAL. Whilst many other similar organizations are operating in various parts of the world; you will see that most of them offer only financial assistance to the less privileged and handicapped people. This is in the form of funding and monetary aids.
Honorary president Mohamed Dekkak and other officials at the Union Road Association have a different approach when it comes to this social cause. This organization is surely helping people with special needs but the ‘help’ is not being provided with financial assistance. In fact, the organization believes in making people with special needs happy and spreading joy amongst them is all about allowing them to live a joyous, normal life. A normal life does not necessarily need to be rich or wealthy. A normal life is all about happiness and being able to enjoy the good things in life.
In order to help handicapped and disabled people lead a normal life, the association is deeply involved in creating equal work, education and recreational opportunities for the deserving people. We provide the opportunities because we have the access to the needed resources. However, that is all we do for them. The rest is done by them on their own to improve their quality of life and lead a much happier life alongside friends and family members.
- The Union road association is dedicated to providing these people with adequate healthcare facilities. Every 1 out of 5 disability, either mental or physical or both, can worsen in a person as a result of lack of proper treatment. The association is fully understanding of this situation and is working to provide proper treatment to the needy people. The association is building healthcare homes and is providing the adequate set up to the pre-existing hospitals to properly care for these people.
- Recreational activities are strongly being encouraged for the disabled and handicapped people in Morocco. You will commonly observe races and other events happening on the streets of Morocco; all of which are dedicated to encouraging a healthier life amongst the needy and deserving people. These recreational activities are also helpful to provide entertainment to these people and bring a little color into their lives as well.
- The one thing that often surprises the world is the endless skill and capabilities that the handicapped people have been blessed with. It is often like people who are born with any disability are blessed with characteristics better than substitute the thing that is missing. The union road association is dedicated to helping the handicapped and disabled people polish their skills by providing them the adequate training and teaching that they will require to have.
- Education is the basic foundation that helps every living individual to flourish and prosper in the long run of life. The disabled, handicapped or less privileged people have equal right to acquire education and use it to create a happier and brighter future. Hence, the association helps to educate people and make them learn the basic principles of living a happy life.
Where do your donations go?
The union road Association is an organization that is solely non-profit in nature. We are also not sponsored by any government organization. Hence, we solely depend on the private donations we receive to remain functional. As a donor to the organization, you have the complete right to ask where all of the donations go and for what purpose are they being used.
The union road association is working to support and encourage all procedures that will promote the betterment of the local people and that will facilitate the progress of the Moroccan society. As a social welfare foundation, we are dedicated to using technological means to assist and aid the handicapped and less privileged to help them live a better life. The purpose is to create independence for all such people. An independent individual can contribute to the progress of the society alone.
The union road association, as already mentioned above is dependent on the private donations it receives as it has no government agencies that sponsor its functions. We are committed to serving for the cause we are operating, hence we do ask for monetary support as we are a non-profit organization. We do not work to earn profits but instead work to create revenue that can be reinvested for some bigger ventures in the future.
The staff of the union association only has 10 to 15 executive members, including the honorary president Mohamed Dekkak. All other members of the organization are working voluntarily for the firm. There are people from all levels; professionals, students and young graduates who are working with the firm to serve the purpose of social welfare. These people are lending their time, effort and abilities for the progress of the nation and the betterment of the handicapped individuals as well as the society on whole.
Every donation that is made to the organization is brought into use to fulfill the mission of the firm. The financial assistance helps the organization to fulfill its goals. We are acting as a connecting bridge between the communities to the disabled people. We are helping the needy people by creating awareness and bringing in help on a wide scale. It is actually very hard to believe that a major population of Morocco is actually disabled. Hence, it is not at all right to overlook such a large group of individuals that make up a huge portion of the society. Hence, we encourage help from the society to bring in manpower and financial help in order to aid our purpose to help the disabled. We wish to stand united with the people of our society in fulfillment of our goals in the long run. We are determined that we can bring change only if we wish to. The changes that we have seen in the society in the past 2 years are tremendous and we are committed to keeping going until we achieve all our goals on a wide scale.
With all the donations that you make, we are actively creating more and more opportunities for health care, shelter, clothing, education, employment, training and transportation for the disabled and handicapped people.
Union Road Association – Creating equal opportunities for everyone!
Training is a piece of the establishment. Amongst the many union road’s goals are the goals of full participation, free living, money related autonomy, and equivalent open doors. The affiliation is centered basically around the lifting access to instruction from preschool through post-graduate work. The executive team at the Union road association adopts a full strategy to manage access to instruction, including support, cooperation with instructive foundations, and activities expected to separate what thwarts to training.
Union Road Association is functioning to ensure that all people who are handicapped will have the benefit to the equivalent open door, to be monetarily autonomous, and to be paid and spare without endangering access to the administrations. These are the backings that allow them to live and work freely which is in turn also a contribution to the progress of the society.
The access to quality, cheap therapeutic administrations is the premise of a free autonomous life. For individuals with insufficiencies or any kind of physical or mental disabilities, which at the time do need the medicinal services administrations, access to therapeutic protection is vital. The affiliation supports quality physical and mental wellbeing that is accessible, sensible, group based and receptive to impediment uncommon necessities.
Many individuals with inabilities pick up from long haul medicinal care and bolster programs. These projects give therapeutic care, units, for example, individual care and different administrations. The Union Road Association helps these activities that advantage a great many individuals with incapacities. Moreover, the establishment underscores on group-based care that will energize interest in the work drive.
We screen and are supportive of a change in medicinal services laws, approach and enactment on well-being data innovation, and also a proposition on state subsidizing for long haul mind. Union Road battles for equivalent access to transportation for crippled people, including pushing a superior access to open transportation and immense interest in accessible travel decisions and travel situated change.
Striving to make Morocco a better place!
As a non-profit organization, we are committed to working for the social welfare of people. The association is not involved in making profit margins. In fact, every revenue that is generated through the activities of the organization; all of it is re-invested into the organization for future vendors. The main aim of the organization remains to be to serve the handicapped and disabled people. We are striving to make Morocco a better place on the face of the earth. Hence, we are committed and solely dedicated to helping all those people pursue their dreams and turn them all into reality, who otherwise would have been a burden on the society. We want to make every individual independent and do not want any disability to stop a person from achieving his dreams or goals.
The core purpose of social services is to encourage people and create a workforce that contributes to the betterment and progress of the society. We encourage equality and by equality, we do not mean to favor any particular gender and do not talk about gender biases. Instead, we are dedicated to creating equality by creating independence amongst people. We wish to make the disabled and handicapped people independent and responsible.
If you ask for reasons why disabled people should be given an equal chance to contribute to the welfare of the society, allow us to give you one reason that should be enough to convince you in this regard. The handicapped and disabled people are considered as a ‘burden’ on the society because people think that they are useless and have no contribution to make to the society. Instead, all they do is ask for help from the society to survive. This can, however, be reversed and this is exactly what they Union road association intends to do. Only if you start to consider the economic growth that the society will have once the disabled people are also able to make their contribution to the progress of the society. The economy of the country will become more stable and the growth rate will be faster. The people that are mostly considered to be a burden on the society can actually play a pivotal role to make the society flourish.
A disabled person does not need pity but actually needs motivation and encouragement. Here is how we encourage the disabled members of our society to play their part and live a happy life and build a stable future.
- We encourage participation
We are encouraging participation of all members of the society. There were times when the disabled and handicapped people were believed to be a burden and disgrace for the society. However, those times have now passed by. Today, we are encouraging the disabled to participate in the development and the progress of the Moroccan society. We at the union road association are staunch believers that the disabled people have the power to take our society to new heights. We encourage participation of all members of the society on all levels because we believe that is the only way we will be able to live a happy and fulfilling life. The purpose of life is to be productive in your acts. We encourage participation so that the handicapped people do not only build a happier future for their own selves but are also able to contribute to the prosperity of the society, country and the world, on a global scale!
- We are making the disabled more responsible!
We hear most of the people, stone-hearted ones, but we hear them complaining about how the disabled and handicapped people are a burden on the human society. What we forget is that we are the ones who make them a burden and added responsibility on others because we do not allow them to be responsible on their own. The truth is that they are fully capable of being responsible and productive if given the chance. The union road association is giving this chance to such people; to be productive and to work for self-efficacy. We should give them the chance to be responsible, do things and make life decisions on their own. This is not only important for the progress and betterment of the society but is also extremely crucial to impart confidence and self-worth in such people.
- We promote equality
The union road association is a proponent of equality. We are committed to creating equal opportunities for every single individual that lives in the society. We are more concerned with creating opportunities rather than fighting for equality. We believe that equality can be created and discrimination on all levels can only be eradicated if we let every person play their individual role. A disabled person is that way but not by individual choice. Hence, he or she should be treated no differently than a normal person. It is mandatory to provide equal work opportunities and give equal chances to access education in order to ensure that the person will be able to create a stable future in the long run.
- We are helping to achieve goals!
Did you know that the person who is in the wheelchair can actually paint wonders? The person who is blind has a voice that is capable of creating magic? The little girl you think is unable to speak is actually blessed with a supremely high IQ level? It is important to question why we ignore all such things in life. These are the people who can be pillars of a stable society. We should learn to start to treat them as an independent entity that can actually be useful to the society rather than a burden that only suppresses the growth of the economy. These people also are born with dreams and also have goals set that they want to achieve in the long run. We facilitate these people and help them to fulfill their dreams and turn them all into reality. The truth is that these people only lack the access to resources and hence this can be a major hurdle in the way of people’s growth and progress. Hence, we at the Union road association are working with people to achieve their goals and fulfill their dreams by bringing their capabilities and skills into use.
Syncing Through Life and Times of Averroes
The unconditional commitment and dedication of Averroes Organization for Coexistence are achieving the goal of creating a bond of togetherness and a culture of Coexistence, Peace and Tolerance amidst various communities.
Through the leadership and guidance of Mohamed Dekkak, Executive President Averroes Organization for Coexistence based in Marrakech, Kingdom of Morocco, where Ibn Rushd marked history. May the organization become an opportunity for communities to build unity to achieve common aspirations and inspire to build bridges of togetherness.
“We are also identifying potential community leaders to be trained on strengthening community-led monitoring mechanism to live inspired by the teachings of Ibn Rushd so that we can strengthen ourselves and our community,” said Mohamed Dekkak, Executive President of the organization.
Below, Let us rediscover the Life and Times of The Muslim Aristotelian, Abul Walid Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd who was credited with having been a strong influence on the movement that ushered in the European Renaissance.
Averroes (or Ibn Rushd) was a prominent Andalusian Arab philosopher, thinker, doctor and jurist of the 12th century (1126-1198). He wrote numerous books (about seventy-eight) on topics as various as philosophy, theology, astronomy, physics, medicine, Islamic jurisprudence, law, and linguistics. He is considered to be a high-level intellectual of his time, and his works continued to influence intellectuals all over the world for centuries after his death. His wisdom and progressive ideas are praised.
Education and personality
Averroes was born in Cordoba in 1126 to a respectable family. His father and grandfather had themselves been prominent Qaadis (magistrates) of their time, and his family was highly respected among elites and knowledgeable people. Back then, Cordoba was a place of intense intellectual activity, and it is in this particular environment that Averroes started to get his education, under the guidance of brilliant professors. He began studying the Quran and Hadiths, grammar, poetry, writing and basic mathematics. His father trained him to Maliki Islamic jurisprudence. He then studied physics, astronomy, medicine and advanced mathematics.
His primary areas of interest were law and its principles (rather than Hadiths), along with Greek philosophy and sciences. Averroes was very competent in Khilaf (disputes in Islamic jurisprudence).
Averroes was a profoundly religious yet considerably progressive intellectual. His high spirituality did not prevent him, in any way, from having ideas, values, and philosophies that were ahead of his time. It even cost him his freedom, as he was imprisoned and exiled for a while, allegedly for his stance on the compatibility of religion with philosophy.
In 1153, at the age of 27, Averroes was invited to the capital of the Almohad caliphate (Marrakesh – present-day Morocco) by Caliph Abdul Momin Ibn Ali to offer consultations on astronomy, on the establishment of some schools in Morocco, and on the reform of the judiciary.
In 1169, he was introduced to Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf, with whom he discussed on subjects as the existence and the origins of the heavens. Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf himself was aware of what the works of Aristotle consisted in. As both the Caliph and Averroes shared similar views on different matters, Averroes remained in Abu Yaqub’s favor until the Caliph’s death in 1184. Initially, it is for the Caliph that Averroes started writing commentaries on Aristotle’s works. Averroes’ first commentary on Aristotle’s works dates back to 1169.
Also in 1169, Averroes was appointed Qadi in Seville until 1171, when he was appointed Qadi in Cordoba for ten years. It is mainly during those ten years that Averroes kept writing his Commentaries on Aristotle’s works. As a Qadi, he performed the same duties as a judge, except that his rulings were based on Islamic law and jurisprudence. In 1179, he once again became Qadi in Seville until he became a court physician in 1182. A little later during the same year, he was selected to be the chief Qadi of Cordoba, just like his grandfather had earlier been.
In 1184, Caliph Abu Yaqub died, and this was when Averroes’ fate started to change. He remained in royal favor for a while but was later charged with several serious offenses in 1195 and then tried in a tribunal in Cordoba. His teachings were condemned, and his works were partly burnt. Indeed, all his works on philosophy were burnt, but not the ones on medicine and astronomy. Averroes even had to exile to Lucena. It is assumed that the Caliph rejected him to gain more support from the more radical and orthodox Maliki jurists. Averroes was considered too progressive, and the orthodox jurists of the time did not agree with his views, that they qualified as a mere lack of faith in religion.
However, after a few years of exile, Averroes returned to Marrakesh and was in the Caliph’s favor again. Shortly after that, he died in 1189. Later on, his body was shifted to his hometown, Cordoba.
2. Averroes’ Scientific Contributions For the Modern World
Averroes first wrote a book at the age of 31. He quickly began to increase his writings and the variety of the subjects that he covered. He wrote about philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence, linguistics, and astronomy. The work that made him famous on a global level was his commentaries of Aristotle’s works. He is said to have written approximately 78 books.
In the field of medicine
Averroes’ work in medicine dealt with research, analysis, and treatment of diseases, although he noticeably preferred to research and study. His best-known work, in medicine, is Kitab Al-Kulliyaat (General Principles of Medicine), written in 1162 before he was appointed as the royal physician of the Almohad court. His book served as a textbook, officially used in western medical colleges and universities for centuries (until the 18th century). It was a book of great importance at the time, as Averroes made interesting and new findings.
In this book, Averroes provided an introduction to physiology. He openly expressed that he adheres to the scientific medicine that we inherited from the Greeks and underlined the necessity to apply the Prophet’s practices and advice in the field of medicine and medical care. Besides this, Averroes made great medical discoveries in his writings.
Averroes gave great importance to observation and experimentation. He considered it a necessity to have an overall knowledge of what natural science taught us in the fields of dissection and the function of body organs. He also was in favor of doctors consulting one another on various matters and this allowed to bring significant progress in the field of medicine.
Averroes’ works reflect his being a deeply religious and well-aware man. He believed that “Anyone who studies anatomy will increase his faith in the omnipotence and the oneness of God the Almighty.”.
Kitab Al-Kulliyaat, Averroes’ main book in the field of medicine, is divided into seven chapters:
- Anatomy of organs. Averroes described the spinal nerves and seven pairs of cerebral nerves and the two brains, mainly. According to Averroes, the ability to imagine, reflect and memorize belong to the brain. He also found out that the sensitive organ of the eye is the retina, and he was among the first ones to declare that it is the retina that perceives light.
- Averroes explained that with smallpox if one survives it, is a disease that one only gets once in a lifetime.
- Averroes gave answers and advice on diarrhea, commented on Galien’s De Febribus (On Fevers) and De Temperamentis. He devoted parts of this chapter to the semen (De Spermate), periodic fevers and putrid fevers. In another part of this chapter, he concluded that rabies is the disease that one gets after being bitten by a dog that is affected by rabies. He also agreed with Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on the fact that hereditary factors play a role in the transmission of certain diseases from father to son.
- Averroes described a significant number of diseases, along with their symptoms and complications. He even dealt with psychologic conditions such as wrath, sadness, anxiety, and epilepsy.
- Drugs and foods. Averroes firmly believed that a healthy diet, clean water, and good-quality pure air were the keys to good health. Medication, according to him, is a foreign body and the ingestion of medicines can potentially affect the functioning of body organs, especially the kidneys and the liver. His opinion on drugs was that, in medicine, one should first have recourse to speech, then herbs, and then, as a last resort, to bistoury.
- Averroes was the author of the first outline of the description of the sarcoptic mange mites, which cause scabies.
- Averroes dedicated a large part of his book to the different types of existing foods and remedies and their effects. He laid out the basic principles to follow to set the right dosages for medicines.
Besides Kitab Al-Kulliyaat, Averroes wrote other books on medicine. Nevertheless, it is Kitab Al-Kulliyaat that is widely known, even today.
In the field of astronomy
Kitab Fi-Harakat Al-Falak is the title of Averroes’ Treatise of Astronomy. It dealt with the movements of the spheres and the stars. He gave explanations on sunspots and justified the occasional opaqueness of the moon by the fact that the moon does not have the same level of thickness on every spot, but rather has thin and thick spots.
In the field of physics
Averroes came up with a new definition of force that is pretty similar to the definition of power used in physics today.
In the field of psychology
Averroes’ works on psychology evolved as he evolved. In his last work on psychology, he stated that there is only one material intellect. The material intellect does not differ from one human being to another, as it is the same for every human being. The reason behind the fact that different human beings may have different thoughts on the same matter is fikr (the process of active consideration). Some intellectuals disagreed with this idea of all human beings sharing the same “material intellect.”
In the field of law/Islamic jurisprudence
Averroes wrote three treatises in the area of Islamic theology. In The Decisive Treatise (Fasl al-Maqal), Averroes argued that Islam and philosophy are compatible. He wrote this at a time when most religious scholars considered that Islam needs to remain rigid and that it can not be interpreted with a philosophical mindset.
In the Exposition of the Methods of Proof, Averroes rejected orthodox and dogmatic viewpoints and gave his argument on the existence of God and His attributes. For example, arguments existed at the time (and they still exist) on whether God had a “body” or not. Many Orthodox scholars, considered it wrong to think that God may have a body and limited themselves to educating the masses about God being body-less. Averroes said that the reasoning of these orthodox scholars was misguiding and confusing the masses further and that the research made on the topic was poor. He further said that allusions were made in the Quran and the hadiths, about God being a “physical being” as well. So, in order not to misguide the population, it would be more appropriate to explain to them that God is a Light simply.
In Tahafut al-Tahafut (Incoherence of the Incoherence), Averroes once again argued that philosophy is entirely compatible with Islam, rejecting Imam Al-Ghazali’s arguments in particular.
In his book Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihayat al-Muqtasid, Averroes wrote on various subjects of Fiqh (Islamic law) and concluded that religion and law are not two separate things. These two areas of knowledge cannot be looked at separately. This conclusion made Averroes gain a respected reputation, even among Muslim scholars who were doubtful towards him.
In the field of philosophy
Averroes was mainly known to the world as the “Commentator,” as he commented and paraphrased Aristotle’s works. Averroes’ philosophy is a mixture of the thoughts of Aristotle in their purest form, and Islam. According to Averroes, nothing in Aristotle’s philosophy, if understood properly, contradicts the Quran or the Divine law that encourages to study all things with rationality. He elaborated the importance of uniting rationality/reason (ma’qul) with the tradition (manqul), considering that the truth can not possibly contradict the truth.
3. Main elements of Averroes’ thoughts
Averroes is characterized as a thinker and philosopher whose thoughts were significantly different from other thinkers of his time. Regarding several of his opinions, Averroes can be seen as an enlightened, wise, isolated and marginalized intellectual.
Islamic Philosophy and Aristotelianism
Hanbalite and Asharite schools were particularly skeptical towards philosophy. In a context of hostility towards philosophers, it is with great determination that Averroes kept arguing in favor of philosophy and open-minded reasoning. He kept demonstrating that philosophy and the use of intellect/reasoning/logic are encouraged in Islam.
According to him, Aristotelianism had been distorted and needed to be reinterpreted appropriately. Philosophy, he argued, is a set of conclusions reached using reason, cannot possibly contradict religion. And if there happens to be any conflict between religion and philosophy, then one should subject them to interpretation or allegorical understanding to remove the contradiction.
Averroes also made a distinction between three different modes of religious (and other) discourse. First, the rhetorical mode (consisting of persuasion), is the mode of discourse used in the Quran for instance. It is easily understandable for the masses. Second, the dialectal mode of discourse consists in debating. It is the mode of discourse used by theologians. Third, the demonstrative mode of discourse is used by philosophers, and it consists in logical deduction. He was in favor of using all these modes of discourse to reach better knowledge.
God’s Existence and Attributes
Averroes, In the treatise Exposition of the Methods of Proof, provided a critique of different doctrines of different Muslim schools, mainly the Asharite and the Hanbalite schools.
On the existence of God, Averroes demonstrated that the universe was designed as if it was made to support human life (Providence). He also suggested that God created all elements such as the Sun, the moon, the rivers, the seas, etc. for the welfare of humanity. He also pointed out that the mere appearance of other beings such as animals and plants showed that they were designed and therefore, there must be a Creator behind the creation: God.
On the attributes of God, Averroes was a strong believer in the doctrine of divine unity (tawhid). God has seven divine attributes: knowledge, life, power, will, hearing, vision, and speech, the most important one being knowledge. The knowledge that God possesses can’t be compared to the knowledge we, as human beings have. God knows the universe as its Creator whereas human beings are only the effects of the creation and therefore have limited knowledge.
The attribute of life is proved by the fact that God has the ability to will objects into being. Power is inferred from the fact that God brings creations into existence. Averroes argued that as long as God has power and knowledge, speech is one of his attributes too insofar as power and knowledge definitely result in the use of speech. Moreover, on the attribute of vision, Averroes argued that creating the universe without seeing it is impossible and therefore, God must possess the attribute of vision, too.
The origins of the universe according to Averroes
In his Incoherence of the Incoherence, Averroes expressed his stance on the creation of the universe.
Neoplatonic thinkers such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna argued that the world had always existed, to which Al-Ghazali responded in a furious manner, refuting all their theories and accusing them of unbelief. Averroes responded to Al-Ghazali in his book, arguing that the question of the universe being created in time or having always existed should not enable us to qualify any thinker of a disbeliever. He also pointed out that some passages of the Quran themselves implied the pre-existence of some aspects of the universe. Averroes, therefore, considered that reading the Quran carefully would allow us to understand that only the form of the universe was created in time, whereas its existence had been eternal.
Averroes’ political ideology
In his commentary on Plato’s Republic, Averroes laid down his ideas while commenting on Plato’s. Averroes explained that the ideal political scenario is one in which Plato’s ideas are combined with the Islamic tradition. For him, the Sharia should be the foundation of the state and the “philosopher-king” should be the imam, who would not only give fatwas but play the role of a (knowledge-lover, wise, just, true, and courageous) philosopher-thinker as well. If the ruling is made impossible for philosophers, these should nonetheless play an important role in the state, by influencing the rulers to achieve the ideal state.
Rather than exerting coercion on the citizens, Averroes was in favor of exerting persuasion on them, with the help of rhetorical, dialectical and demonstrative modes of discourse. War should be a last resort, to defend the state against enemies.
Women, in Averroes’ ideal state, are allowed to share responsibility in the administration of the state. Women’s passive role in the public affairs of the state should not be seen as a positive thing, as their becoming rulers, soldiers and philosophers would guarantee the well-being of the state, according to Averroes.
4. Averroes’ legacy
Today, Averroes is still recognized as a brilliant and genius thinker, philosopher and doctor of the 12th century. His findings in medicine make him still highly respected today. The plant Averrhoa, Lunar crater Ibn Rushd, Asteroid8318 Averroes… all these were named after Averroes.
His findings and writings had a significant influence on intellectuals throughout the centuries following his death. Jewish scholars such as Maimonides were impressed by Averroes’ works. In 1260, Averroes’ works on medicine were first published, along with his commentaries.
Averroes’ also considerably influenced intellectuals belonging to the Latin tradition. Indeed, the fall of the Western Roman Empire had resulted in Europe’s cultural decline. The legacy of the Greek, including Aristotle’s, was lost and it is precisely Averroes’ works on Aristotle (commentaries and translations) that helped the Christian West, to some extent, to have proper access to knowledge again. Later on, some intellectuals in the West criticized Averroes’ positions on the concepts of “eternal, pre-existing world” and “Providence.”
In the Muslim tradition, Averroes’ works didn’t seem appealing at first. Aristotle’s works had already been studied and translated, and this is why Muslims did not pay too much attention to Averroes’ new interpretations. It is only in the 19th century that Averroes became more valued, partly because the Muslim world was going through a phase of modernization and re-awakening at that time.
In conclusion, Averroes is one of those intellectuals of the Andalusian Arab world of the 12th century who not only was able to achieve great things during his life but also managed to be followed and studied long after his death. For centuries after his death, intellectuals continued to study his works and writings and to be impressed by his findings.
Soon after composing his Decisive Treatise, Averroes created “Al Kashf `An Manahij Al Adillah Fi `Aqaid Al Millah” or The Exposition of the Methods of Proof Concerning the Beliefs of the Community), which was completely a noteworthy piece on the precept of God. The composition an incredible endeavor to decide if religious principles that are in possession of the general population in the 4 prime orders contorted sacred writings in making them more incongruent with Islam. Averroes questioning along these lines could be deciphered as a reasonable articulation of his principle on God.
Stated here in this creation, Averroes initially inspects the “contentions for the presence of God in view of the distinctive factions, rejecting every one as wrong and destructive to people in general”. He argues, for instance, that merely two contentions are deserving of recognition, both beginning in the Quran, surahs 25:61, 78:6-16 and 80:24-33 and the main position is the contention of “providence”, wherein one can see that that is in the world fills the need of humankind. “Averroes discusses the earth, moon, the sun, and the climate as cases of by what means the world is molded for people”, and promotes the thought that if the world is, at that point, so perfectly created, at that point it indicates of a perfect God. The translation was like Voltaire’s contention a few eras later as the French Enlightenment savant protected freedom. The next reference depended on the contention of “creation”, emerging from “the perception that everything on the planet seems to be imagined. Plants and creatures have a development that seems to be planned; all things considered, the designer was engaged, and it is God.”
Averroes continued, as did the greater part of his scholar counterparts, that there are 7 divine features that were comparable to human qualities – life, knowledge, power, hearing, will, speech and vision. “For Averroes, the aspect of learning possessed much room in his composition on the features of God,” and Averroes asserted that divine learning was comparable to human learning just in name, the last being the result of impact while the previous was a result of the cause. Averroes is certain of that God was the primary cause of the world. In that capacity, he had genuine knowledge, while people obtained information in light of the impacts of such reasons.
Averroes or Ibn Rushd claims that the aspect of life may be indirect since it is the prerequisite of knowledge, and because that God created objects to life. Power can be concluded by God’s capability to bring objects into being. As to speech, Averroes reasons that knowledge and power without a doubt give rise to speech. In conclusion, with regards to speech and vision, Averroes emphasized that because God created the world, he certainly knows every part of it, just like an artist that understands their masterpieces very well. Given that two elements of the world are the visual and the auditory, God must essentially possess the vision and speech.
The reasoning of Averroes is significant when it speaks of Islamic heritage. In his attempt to reach out to other fields of sciences what religion has done, can take in some topics primarily in the education area.
Political Science – Averroes likewise proclaimed that ladies were equivalent to men in all regards and had the same abilities to sparkle in peace and war, referring to cases of female warriors among the Greeks, Arabs, and Africans to back up his case.
Medicine – Averroes authored a medical reference book entitled Kulliyat referred to in its Latin interpretation as Colliget. He likewise made a collection of Galen’s works and composed an analysis of Avicenna’s the Canon of Medicine.
Physical Science – Averroes likewise wrote three books on physical science specifically: Short Commentary on the Physics, Middle Commentary on the Physics and Long Commentary on the Physics. The philosopher characterized and calculate force as “the rate at which work is done in changing the active state of a material body” and rightly contended “that the impact and measure of force change in the motor state of a tangibly resistant mass.” He took a specific and distinct fascination in the comprehension of “motor force.”
Astronomy – With regards to Averroes research in space science, he contended for an entirely concentric model of the universe, expounded on sunspots and logical analysis in regards to the infrequent opaque shades of the moon. He likewise wrote about spheres and its movement.
Brain science – Averroes additionally made a few pieces of research concerning Active and Passive intelligence, under the subjects of Psychology.
The concept of Music – Being an Arab music scholar, Averroes contribution to music was his interpretation of Aristotle’s On the Soul, where Averroes managed perspicuously with sound theory. Its content was translated into Latin by Michael Scot.
The happening that surrounds Averroes on the final days of his life indicated a more extensive social movement in the Islamic world. Enthusiasm for logic was mainly among the rich: scholars, sponsors, and government workers. However, its essence among the privileged showed a diversity of what it means being a “Muslim.” As enthusiasm for philosophy faded in the Muslim world after Averroes compositions discovered new life and scholarly force in creations by Christian and Jewish scholars.
There was an intellectual revival during the 12th – 13th century in the Latin West. Some top colleges being built up in France, Italy, and England. A gathering of scholars at the University of Paris identified themselves with the Aristotelian logic displayed by Averroes, especially specific components of its religion to religion. Recognized later as the “Averroists,” these Christian scholars started a contention inside the Roman Catholic Church about the inclusion of logic with religion. Averroists, their informers, charged, had supported the creed of one intellect for all people, rejecting a soul’s immortality, asserted that happiness could be found in this life and encouraged the creative precept of “double truth”. Double truth, the possibility that there are two types of fact, religious and philosophical, was not thought by Averroes himself but instead was a development of the Averroists.
Averroes promoted the practice of Greek reasoning in the Islamic world. His analyses expelled the neo-Platonic inclination of his predecessors. Disapproving al-Farabi’s endeavor to combine Plato and Aristotle’s thoughts, Averroes contended that Aristotle’s logic is different in many ways from Plato’s. Averroes discarded Avicenna’s Neoplatonism which was halfway given creations by neo-Platonic savants, Plotinus and Proclus, which were erroneously credited to Aristotle.
In metaphysics, or all the more precisely ontology, Averroes rejects the view progressed by Avicenna that presence is simply unintentional. Avicenna believes that “quintessence is ontologically preceding existence”. The incidental are properties which are not important, yet rather are extra unexpected attributes. Averroes, following Aristotle, believes that individual existing substances are essential. One may isolate them rationally; be that as it may, ontologically, presence and quintessence are one. According to Fakhry, this speaks to a change from Plato’s hypothesis of Ideas, where thoughts go before particulars, to Aristotle’s hypothesis where particulars come first, and the substance is “arrived at by a procedure of abstraction.”
Averroes gave clarified analyses on the majority of Aristotle’s works, defining and describing the hard and specialized mastermind such that others – including the more significant part of Western scholars – could all the more promptly draw in with his thoughts and improve them. He composed three various types of analysis on Aristotelian writings – a long one for researchers, and medium-length and shorter ones for the public. It was in these briefer analyses that Averroes communicated his particular feelings straightforwardly on the scope of philosophical and religious issues, yet in the long discourses, he attempted, effectively in general, to safeguard an impartial scholastic tone.
As expressed above, Averroes contended in his “Decisive Treatise” that it is worthy to learn about philosophy, Muslims are in actuality obliged to do as such, and they should dive into philosophical issues to discover appropriate answers for religious matters, particularly in light of the fact that scholars proved unable, without anyone else’s input, resolve such problems as how to decipher the Quran.
Averroes coherent contentions accommodated religion with reason, along these lines uniting religion and innovation and science, one of the vital ideological issues of the Middle East in the pre-present day until today. Regardless of whether the radical bearings in which his creation was taken spoken to his particular perspectives appears to be improbable. He did, in any case, build up the theory that religion and reason were several courses to a similar truth. In the social settings where religion was viewed as the significant course to reality, as in medieval Europe and, unfortunately in certain barely characterized contemporary radical fields, Averroes may appear to speak to a subversive vision. Truth be told, Averroes was a deist, regardless of whether he didn’t see the Greeks experts with doubt. As the Hanbali current made strides beginning in the tenth century, in any case, Averroes wished to keep away from pressures in relation to the more conservative components in society, with little achievement.