Syncing Through Life and Times of Averroes
The unconditional commitment and dedication of Averroes Organization for Coexistence are achieving the goal of creating a bond of togetherness and a culture of Coexistence, Peace, and Tolerance amidst various communities.
Through the leadership and guidance of Mohamed Dekkak, Executive President Averroes Organization for Coexistence based in Marrakech, Kingdom of Morocco, where Ibn Rushd marked history. May the organization become an opportunity for communities to build unity to achieve common aspirations and inspire to build bridges of togetherness.
“We are also identifying potential community leaders to be trained on strengthening community-led monitoring mechanism to live inspired by the teachings of Ibn Rushd so that we can strengthen ourselves and our community,” said Mohamed Dekkak, Executive President of the organization.
Below, Let us rediscover the Life and Times of The Muslim Aristotelian, Abul Walid Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd who was credited with having been a strong influence on the movement that ushered in the European Renaissance.
Averroes (or Ibn Rushd) was a prominent Andalusian Arab philosopher, thinker, doctor and jurist of the 12th century (1126-1198). He wrote numerous books (about seventy-eight) on topics as various as philosophy, theology, astronomy, physics, medicine, Islamic jurisprudence, law, and linguistics. He is considered to be a high-level intellectual of his time, and his works continued to influence intellectuals all over the world for centuries after his death. His wisdom and progressive ideas are praised.
Education and personality
Averroes was born in Cordoba in 1126 to a respectable family. His father and grandfather had themselves been prominent Qaadis (magistrates) of their time, and his family was highly respected among elites and knowledgeable people. Back then, Cordoba was a place of intense intellectual activity, and it is in this particular environment that Averroes started to get his education, under the guidance of brilliant professors. He began studying the Quran and Hadiths, grammar, poetry, writing and basic mathematics. His father trained him to Maliki Islamic jurisprudence. He then studied physics, astronomy, medicine and advanced mathematics.
His primary areas of interest were law and its principles (rather than Hadiths), along with Greek philosophy and sciences. Averroes was very competent in Khilaf (disputes in Islamic jurisprudence).
Averroes was a profoundly religious yet considerably progressive intellectual. His high spirituality did not prevent him, in any way, from having ideas, values, and philosophies that were ahead of his time. It even cost him his freedom, as he was imprisoned and exiled for a while, allegedly for his stance on the compatibility of religion with philosophy.
In 1153, at the age of 27, Averroes was invited to the capital of the Almohad caliphate (Marrakesh – present-day Morocco) by Caliph Abdul Momin Ibn Ali to offer consultations on astronomy, on the establishment of some schools in Morocco, and on the reform of the judiciary.
In 1169, he was introduced to Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf, with whom he discussed on subjects as the existence and the origins of the heavens. Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf himself was aware of what the works of Aristotle consisted in. As both the Caliph and Averroes shared similar views on different matters, Averroes remained in Abu Yaqub’s favor until the Caliph’s death in 1184. Initially, it is for the Caliph that Averroes started writing commentaries on Aristotle’s works. Averroes’ first commentary on Aristotle’s works dates back to 1169.
Also in 1169, Averroes was appointed Qadi in Seville until 1171, when he was appointed Qadi in Cordoba for ten years. It is mainly during those ten years that Averroes kept writing his Commentaries on Aristotle’s works. As a Qadi, he performed the same duties as a judge, except that his rulings were based on Islamic law and jurisprudence. In 1179, he once again became Qadi in Seville until he became a court physician in 1182. A little later during the same year, he was selected to be the chief Qadi of Cordoba, just like his grandfather had earlier been.
In 1184, Caliph Abu Yaqub died, and this was when Averroes’ fate started to change. He remained in royal favor for a while but was later charged with several serious offenses in 1195 and then tried in a tribunal in Cordoba. His teachings were condemned, and his works were partly burnt. Indeed, all his works on philosophy were burnt, but not the ones on medicine and astronomy. Averroes even had to exile to Lucena. It is assumed that the Caliph rejected him to gain more support from the more radical and orthodox Maliki jurists. Averroes was considered too progressive, and the orthodox jurists of the time did not agree with his views, that they qualified as a mere lack of faith in religion.
However, after a few years of exile, Averroes returned to Marrakesh and was in the Caliph’s favor again. Shortly after that, he died in 1189. Later on, his body was shifted to his hometown, Cordoba.
2. Averroes’ Scientific Contributions For the Modern World
Averroes first wrote a book at the age of 31. He quickly began to increase his writings and the variety of the subjects that he covered. He wrote about philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence, linguistics, and astronomy. The work that made him famous on a global level was his commentaries of Aristotle’s works. He is said to have written approximately 78 books.
In the field of medicine
Averroes’ work in medicine dealt with research, analysis, and treatment of diseases, although he noticeably preferred to research and study. His best-known work, in medicine, is Kitab Al-Kulliyaat (General Principles of Medicine), written in 1162 before he was appointed as the royal physician of the Almohad court. His book served as a textbook, officially used in western medical colleges and universities for centuries (until the 18th century). It was a book of great importance at the time, as Averroes made interesting and new findings.
In this book, Averroes provided an introduction to physiology. He openly expressed that he adheres to the scientific medicine that we inherited from the Greeks and underlined the necessity to apply the Prophet’s practices and advice in the field of medicine and medical care. Besides this, Averroes made great medical discoveries in his writings.
Averroes gave great importance to observation and experimentation. He considered it a necessity to have an overall knowledge of what natural science taught us in the fields of dissection and the function of body organs. He also was in favor of doctors consulting one another on various matters and this allowed to bring significant progress in the field of medicine.
Averroes’ works reflect his being a deeply religious and well-aware man. He believed that “Anyone who studies anatomy will increase his faith in the omnipotence and the oneness of God the Almighty.”.
Kitab Al-Kulliyaat, Averroes’ main book in the field of medicine, is divided into seven chapters:
- Anatomy of organs. Averroes described the spinal nerves and seven pairs of cerebral nerves and the two brains, mainly. According to Averroes, the ability to imagine, reflect and memorize belong to the brain. He also found out that the sensitive organ of the eye is the retina, and he was among the first ones to declare that it is the retina that perceives light.
- Averroes explained that with smallpox if one survives it, is a disease that one only gets once in a lifetime.
- Averroes gave answers and advice on diarrhea, commented on Galien’s De Febribus (On Fevers) and De Temperamentis. He devoted parts of this chapter to the semen (De Spermate), periodic fevers and putrid fevers. In another part of this chapter, he concluded that rabies is the disease that one gets after being bitten by a dog that is affected by rabies. He also agreed with Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on the fact that hereditary factors play a role in the transmission of certain diseases from father to son.
- Averroes described a significant number of diseases, along with their symptoms and complications. He even dealt with psychologic conditions such as wrath, sadness, anxiety, and epilepsy.
- Drugs and foods. Averroes firmly believed that a healthy diet, clean water, and good-quality pure air were the keys to good health. Medication, according to him, is a foreign body and the ingestion of medicines can potentially affect the functioning of body organs, especially the kidneys and the liver. His opinion on drugs was that, in medicine, one should first have recourse to speech, then herbs, and then, as a last resort, to bistoury.
- Averroes was the author of the first outline of the description of the sarcoptic mange mites, which cause scabies.
- Averroes dedicated a large part of his book to the different types of existing foods and remedies and their effects. He laid out the basic principles to follow to set the right dosages for medicines.
Besides Kitab Al-Kulliyaat, Averroes wrote other books on medicine. Nevertheless, it is Kitab Al-Kulliyaat that is widely known, even today.
In the field of astronomy
Kitab Fi-Harakat Al-Falak is the title of Averroes’ Treatise of Astronomy. It dealt with the movements of the spheres and the stars. He gave explanations on sunspots and justified the occasional opaqueness of the moon by the fact that the moon does not have the same level of thickness on every spot, but rather has thin and thick spots.
In the field of physics
Averroes came up with a new definition of force that is pretty similar to the definition of power used in physics today.
In the field of psychology
Averroes’ works on psychology evolved as he evolved. In his last work on psychology, he stated that there is only one material intellect. The material intellect does not differ from one human being to another, as it is the same for every human being. The reason behind the fact that different human beings may have different thoughts on the same matter is fikr (the process of active consideration). Some intellectuals disagreed with this idea of all human beings sharing the same “material intellect.”
In the field of law/Islamic jurisprudence
Averroes wrote three treatises in the area of Islamic theology. In The Decisive Treatise (Fasl al-Maqal), Averroes argued that Islam and philosophy are compatible. He wrote this at a time when most religious scholars considered that Islam needs to remain rigid and that it can not be interpreted with a philosophical mindset.
In the Exposition of the Methods of Proof, Averroes rejected orthodox and dogmatic viewpoints and gave his argument on the existence of God and His attributes. For example, arguments existed at the time (and they still exist) on whether God had a “body” or not. Many Orthodox scholars, considered it wrong to think that God may have a body and limited themselves to educating the masses about God being body-less. Averroes said that the reasoning of these orthodox scholars was misguiding and confusing the masses further and that the research made on the topic was poor. He further said that allusions were made in the Quran and the hadiths, about God being a “physical being” as well. So, in order not to misguide the population, it would be more appropriate to explain to them that God is a Light simply.
In Tahafut al-Tahafut (Incoherence of the Incoherence), Averroes once again argued that philosophy is entirely compatible with Islam, rejecting Imam Al-Ghazali’s arguments in particular.
In his book Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihayat al-Muqtasid, Averroes wrote on various subjects of Fiqh (Islamic law) and concluded that religion and law are not two separate things. These two areas of knowledge cannot be looked at separately. This conclusion made Averroes gain a respected reputation, even among Muslim scholars who were doubtful towards him.
In the field of philosophy
Averroes was mainly known to the world as the “Commentator,” as he commented and paraphrased Aristotle’s works. Averroes’ philosophy is a mixture of the thoughts of Aristotle in their purest form, and Islam. According to Averroes, nothing in Aristotle’s philosophy, if understood properly, contradicts the Quran or the Divine law that encourages to study all things with rationality. He elaborated the importance of uniting rationality/reason (ma’qul) with the tradition (manqul), considering that the truth can not possibly contradict the truth.
3. Main elements of Averroes’ thoughts
Averroes is characterized as a thinker and philosopher whose thoughts were significantly different from other thinkers of his time. Regarding several of his opinions, Averroes can be seen as an enlightened, wise, isolated and marginalized intellectual.
Islamic Philosophy and Aristotelianism
Hanbalite and Asharite schools were particularly skeptical towards philosophy. In a context of hostility towards philosophers, it is with great determination that Averroes kept arguing in favor of philosophy and open-minded reasoning. He kept demonstrating that philosophy and the use of intellect/reasoning/logic are encouraged in Islam.
According to him, Aristotelianism had been distorted and needed to be reinterpreted appropriately. Philosophy, he argued, is a set of conclusions reached using reason, cannot possibly contradict religion. And if there happens to be any conflict between religion and philosophy, then one should subject them to interpretation or allegorical understanding to remove the contradiction.
Averroes also made a distinction between three different modes of religious (and other) discourse. First, the rhetorical mode (consisting of persuasion), is the mode of discourse used in the Quran for instance. It is easily understandable for the masses. Second, the dialectal mode of discourse consists in debating. It is the mode of discourse used by theologians. Third, the demonstrative mode of discourse is used by philosophers, and it consists in logical deduction. He was in favor of using all these modes of discourse to reach better knowledge.
God’s Existence and Attributes
Averroes, In the treatise Exposition of the Methods of Proof, provided a critique of different doctrines of different Muslim schools, mainly the Asharite and the Hanbalite schools.
On the existence of God, Averroes demonstrated that the universe was designed as if it was made to support human life (Providence). He also suggested that God created all elements such as the Sun, the moon, the rivers, the seas, etc. for the welfare of humanity. He also pointed out that the mere appearance of other beings such as animals and plants showed that they were designed and therefore, there must be a Creator behind the creation: God.
On the attributes of God, Averroes was a strong believer in the doctrine of divine unity (tawhid). God has seven divine attributes: knowledge, life, power, will, hearing, vision, and speech, the most important one being knowledge. The knowledge that God possesses can’t be compared to the knowledge we, as human beings have. God knows the universe as its Creator whereas human beings are only the effects of the creation and therefore have limited knowledge.
The attribute of life is proved by the fact that God has the ability to will objects into being. Power is inferred from the fact that God brings creations into existence. Averroes argued that as long as God has power and knowledge, speech is one of his attributes too insofar as power and knowledge definitely result in the use of speech. Moreover, on the attribute of vision, Averroes argued that creating the universe without seeing it is impossible and therefore, God must possess the attribute of vision, too.
The origins of the universe according to Averroes
In his Incoherence of the Incoherence, Averroes expressed his stance on the creation of the universe.
Neoplatonic thinkers such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna argued that the world had always existed, to which Al-Ghazali responded in a furious manner, refuting all their theories and accusing them of unbelief. Averroes responded to Al-Ghazali in his book, arguing that the question of the universe being created in time or having always existed should not enable us to qualify any thinker of a disbeliever. He also pointed out that some passages of the Quran themselves implied the pre-existence of some aspects of the universe. Averroes, therefore, considered that reading the Quran carefully would allow us to understand that only the form of the universe was created in time, whereas its existence had been eternal.
Averroes’ political ideology
In his commentary on Plato’s Republic, Averroes laid down his ideas while commenting on Plato’s. Averroes explained that the ideal political scenario is one in which Plato’s ideas are combined with the Islamic tradition. For him, the Sharia should be the foundation of the state and the “philosopher-king” should be the imam, who would not only give fatwas but play the role of a (knowledge-lover, wise, just, true, and courageous) philosopher-thinker as well. If the ruling is made impossible for philosophers, these should nonetheless play an important role in the state, by influencing the rulers to achieve the ideal state.
Rather than exerting coercion on the citizens, Averroes was in favor of exerting persuasion on them, with the help of rhetorical, dialectical and demonstrative modes of discourse. War should be a last resort, to defend the state against enemies.
Women, in Averroes’ ideal state, are allowed to share responsibility in the administration of the state. Women’s passive role in the public affairs of the state should not be seen as a positive thing, as their becoming rulers, soldiers and philosophers would guarantee the well-being of the state, according to Averroes.
4. Averroes’ legacy
Today, Averroes is still recognized as a brilliant and genius thinker, philosopher and doctor of the 12th century. His findings in medicine make him still highly respected today. The plant Averrhoa, Lunar crater Ibn Rushd, Asteroid8318 Averroes… all these were named after Averroes.
His findings and writings had a significant influence on intellectuals throughout the centuries following his death. Jewish scholars such as Maimonides were impressed by Averroes’ works. In 1260, Averroes’ works on medicine were first published, along with his commentaries.
Averroes’ also considerably influenced intellectuals belonging to the Latin tradition. Indeed, the fall of the Western Roman Empire had resulted in Europe’s cultural decline. The legacy of the Greek, including Aristotle’s, was lost and it is precisely Averroes’ works on Aristotle (commentaries and translations) that helped the Christian West, to some extent, to have proper access to knowledge again. Later on, some intellectuals in the West criticized Averroes’ positions on the concepts of “eternal, pre-existing world” and “Providence.”
In the Muslim tradition, Averroes’ works didn’t seem appealing at first. Aristotle’s works had already been studied and translated, and this is why Muslims did not pay too much attention to Averroes’ new interpretations. It is only in the 19th century that Averroes became more valued, partly because the Muslim world was going through a phase of modernization and re-awakening at that time.
In conclusion, Averroes is one of those intellectuals of the Andalusian Arab world of the 12th century who not only was able to achieve great things during his life but also managed to be followed and studied long after his death. For centuries after his death, intellectuals continued to study his works and writings and to be impressed by his findings.
Soon after composing his Decisive Treatise, Averroes created “Al Kashf `An Manahij Al Adillah Fi `Aqaid Al Millah” or The Exposition of the Methods of Proof Concerning the Beliefs of the Community), which was completely a noteworthy piece on the precept of God. The composition an incredible endeavor to decide if religious principles that are in possession of the general population in the 4 prime orders contorted sacred writings in making them more incongruent with Islam. Averroes questioning along these lines could be deciphered as a reasonable articulation of his principle on God.
Stated here in this creation, Averroes initially inspects the “contentions for the presence of God in view of the distinctive factions, rejecting every one as wrong and destructive to people in general”. He argues, for instance, that merely two contentions are deserving of recognition, both beginning in the Quran, surahs 25:61, 78:6-16 and 80:24-33 and the main position is the contention of “providence”, wherein one can see that that is in the world fills the need of humankind. “Averroes discusses the earth, moon, the sun, and the climate as cases of by what means the world is molded for people”, and promotes the thought that if the world is, at that point, so perfectly created, at that point it indicates of a perfect God. The translation was like Voltaire’s contention a few eras later as the French Enlightenment savant protected freedom. The next reference depended on the contention of “creation”, emerging from “the perception that everything on the planet seems to be imagined. Plants and creatures have a development that seems to be planned; all things considered, the designer was engaged, and it is God.”
Averroes continued, as did the greater part of his scholar counterparts, that there are 7 divine features that were comparable to human qualities – life, knowledge, power, hearing, will, speech and vision. “For Averroes, the aspect of learning possessed much room in his composition on the features of God,” and Averroes asserted that divine learning was comparable to human learning just in name, the last being the result of impact while the previous was a result of the cause. Averroes is certain of that God was the primary cause of the world. In that capacity, he had genuine knowledge, while people obtained information in light of the impacts of such reasons.
Averroes or Ibn Rushd claims that the aspect of life may be indirect since it is the prerequisite of knowledge, and because that God created objects into life. Power can be concluded by God’s capability to bring objects into being. As to speech, Averroes reasons that knowledge and power without a doubt give rise to speech. In conclusion, with regards to speech and vision, Averroes emphasized that because God created the world, he certainly knows every part of it, just like an artist that understands their masterpieces very well. Given that two elements of the world are the visual and the auditory, God must essentially possess the vision and speech.
The reasoning of Averroes is significant when it speaks of Islamic heritage. In his attempt to reach out to other fields of sciences what religion has done, can take in a number of topics especially in the education area.
Political Science – Averroes likewise proclaimed that ladies were equivalent to men in all regards and had the same abilities to sparkle in peace and in war, referring to cases of female warriors among the Greeks, Arabs, and Africans to back up his case.
Medicine – Averroes authored a medical reference book entitled Kulliyat referred to in its Latin interpretation as Colliget. He likewise made a collection of Galen’s works and composed an analysis of Avicenna’s the Canon of Medicine.
Physical Science – Averroes likewise wrote 3 books on physical science specifically: Short Commentary on the Physics, Middle Commentary on the Physics and Long Commentary on the Physics. The philosopher characterized and calculate force as “the rate at which work is done in changing the active state of a material body” and rightly contended “that the impact and measure of force change in the motor state of a tangibly resistant mass”. He took a specific and distinct fascination in the comprehension of “motor force”.
Astronomy – With regards to Averroes research in space science, he contended for an entirely concentric model of the universe, expounded on sunspots and logical analysis in regards to the infrequent opaque shades of the moon. He likewise wrote about spheres and its movement.
Brain science – Averroes additionally made a few pieces of research with respect to Active and Passive intelligence, under the subjects of Psychology.
The concept of Music – Being an Arab music scholar, Averroes contribution to music was his interpretation of Aristotle’s On the Soul, where Averroes managed perspicuously with sound theory. Its content was translated into Latin by Michael Scot.
The happening that surrounds Averroes on the final days of his life, indicated a more extensive social movement in the Islamic world. Enthusiasm for logic was mainly among the rich: scholars, sponsors, and government workers. However, its essence among the privileged showed a diversity of what it means being a “Muslim.” As enthusiasm for philosophy faded in the Muslim world after Averroes compositions discovered new life and scholarly force in creations by Christian and Jewish scholars.
There was an intellectual revival during the 12th – 13th century in the Latin West. A number of top colleges being built up in France, Italy, and England. A gathering of scholars at the University of Paris, identified themselves with the Aristotelian logic displayed by Averroes, especially certain components of its religion to religion. Recognized later as the “Averroists,” these Christian scholars started a contention inside the Roman Catholic Church about the inclusion of logic with religion. Averroists, their informers charged, had supported the creed of one intellect for all people, rejecting a soul’s immortality, asserted that happiness can be found in this life and encouraged the creative precept of “double truth”. Double truth, the possibility that there are two types of truth, religious and philosophical, was not thought by Averroes himself but rather was a development of the Averroists.
Averroes promoted the practice of Greek reasoning in the Islamic world. His analyses expelled the neo-Platonic inclination of his predecessors. Disapproving al-Farabi’s endeavor to combine Plato and Aristotle’s thoughts, Averroes contended that Aristotle’s logic is different in many ways from Plato’s. Averroes discarded Avicenna’s Neoplatonism which was halfway in view of creations by neo-Platonic savants, Plotinus and Proclus, which were erroneously credited to Aristotle.
In metaphysics, or all the more precisely ontology, Averroes rejects the view progressed by Avicenna that presence is simply unintentional. Avicenna believes that “quintessence is ontologically preceding existence”. The incidental are properties which are not important, yet rather are extra unexpected attributes. Averroes, following Aristotle, believes that individual existing substances are essential. One may isolate them rationally; be that as it may, ontologically, presence and quintessence are one. According to Fakhry, this speaks to a change from Plato’s hypothesis of Ideas, where thoughts go before particulars, to Aristotle’s hypothesis where particulars come first and the substance is “arrived at by a procedure of abstraction.”
Averroes gave clarified analyses on the majority of Aristotle’s works, clarifying and describing the hard and specialized mastermind such that others – including the greater part of Western scholars – could all the more promptly draw in with his thoughts and improve them. He composed three various types of analysis on Aristotelian writings – a long one for researchers, and medium-length and shorter ones for the public. It was in these briefer analyses that Averroes communicated his own particular feelings straightforwardly on a scope of philosophical and religious issues, yet in the long discourses, he attempted, effectively in general, to safeguard an impartial scholastic tone.
As expressed above, Averroes contended in his “Decisive Treatise” that it is worthy to learn about philosophy, Muslims are in actuality obliged to do as such, and they should dive into philosophical issues to discover appropriate answers for religious issues, particularly in light of the fact that scholars proved unable, without anyone else’s input, resolve such problems as how to decipher the Quran.
Averroes coherent contentions accommodated religion with reason, along these lines uniting religion and innovation and science, one of vital ideological issues of the Middle East in the pre-present day until today. Regardless of whether the radical bearings in which his creation was taken really spoken to his own particular perspectives appears to be improbable. He did, in any case, build up the theory that religion and reason were diverse courses to a similar truth. In the social settings where religion was viewed as the significant course to reality, as in medieval Europe and, unfortunately in certain barely characterized contemporary radical fields, Averroes may appear to speak to a subversive vision. Truth be told, Averroes was a deist, regardless of whether he didn’t see the Greeks experts with doubt. As the Hanbali current made strides beginning in the tenth century, in any case, Averroes wished to keep away from pressures in relation to the more conservative components in society, with little achievement.
Better referred to in the West as Averroes, Abul Walid Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd, turned into an extraordinary Aristotelian in the Islam world. Dismissed by his own, Averroes modernized logic in Jewish Europe and Christian and was attributed with giving out a solid impact on the development that introduced the European Renaissance.
Averroes has been a doctor, legal counselor, and scholar and, as indicated by his present biography writer Oliver Leaman, amid the time of Islamic government under the Almohad, “turned into an important political and legitimate figure in Cardoba, Spain, one thing that made his life challenging on occasion particularly the minute situation in politics changed.”
Averroes was deported more than once, including to Northern Africa toward the last years of his existence, as to specifically why remains a puzzle. His long and satisfying life was completed by the affirmation of a considerable load of his commitments in understanding Aristotle, a standout amongst the most, if not the most, significant establishing figure in Western logic.
It is vital to take note of that under two decades prior to when he was born, the immense faultfinder of Islamic theory, Al Ghazali (1058-1111), passed away in the wake of striking a close deadly knock on Muslim scholars, for example, Ibn Sina, who embraced Platonism.
In any case, Spanish-Muslim logicians, of whom the law specialist and doctor Averroes came to be viewed as the last and most compelling, included noteworthy esteem. The Cardoban disdained the shallow dispute then in vogue among scholars that logicians were outside the fold of Islam, particularly since no backup proof could be distinguished in the Quran to prove such statements.
Ibn Rushd has put on the emphasis that it was conceivable to get the truth by means of philosophy and that its investigation ought not to be restricted. Normally, such a stand required, to the point that he challenge Asharite, Sufi, Mu’tazilite, and “literalist” originations of God’s features and activities – all of which he set out upon with fearlessness taking note of the philosophical issues that emerged out of their understandings from brief happenings.
He showed the benefit of uncovering the more profound implications of customs by drawing in with religion basically and insightfully. Just such a method, he accepted, could wipe out degenerate perceptions of the divine.
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A standout amongst the most famous Andalusian thinkers of the Middle Ages, Ibn Rushd also called as Averroes had made huge influence to the fields of philosophy, astrophysics, health, law, brain research, geology, and physics. Since his youth, he had a slant towards procuring information on different points which established the framework for his skill on an immense scope of studies. He started ‘Averroism’, a school of reasoning and trusted that as opposed to well-known conclusion religion and theory are the two ideas that guide in the man’s journey of salvation. Although religion was implied for everybody, reasoning was selective to the individuals who had a more noteworthy judgment. He extracted similar views with Greek logician Aristotle’s conviction. A few of his popular works were analyses on Politics & Republics of Aristotle. He was condemned for his perspectives on faith and a significant number of his pieces were prohibited and not allowed in Marrakesh, Morocco. In spite of these, he was very respected among his associates and literary works of Dante & James Joyce have gone on about this exceptional polymath.
Conceived in Córdoba, Spain on 14th of April 1126, young Averroes got training from the best educators in topics extending from religious philosophy & Hadith to etymology and law. Considering medicine, he studied under the guidance of Abu Jafar ibn Harun al-Turjali.
Abu Al-Walid Muhammad is the grandfather of Averroes. His father is Abu Al-Qasim, both of whom were experts of law under the Berber administration of Almoravids.
He began his profession in the court of Abu Yaqub Yusuf. The ruler was a fan of science and logic and Ibn Zuhr who was a prestigious specialist was the court doctor. Averroes got to know Ibn Zuhr and guided him.
His ability in the area of health was realized when he distributed ‘Kitab al-Kulyat fi al-Tibb’.
Averroes first wrote an editorial on the works of the Greek philosopher, Aristotle at the court of Abu Yaqub. His musings on religion and theory were additionally shaped by scholar Ibn Bajjah.
Devoted to readings of different theoretical works that proceeded for the following 3 decades, he built up a school of thought that was named ‘Averroism’.
In 1160, he was designated as judge of Seville region where Averroes put on the duty in numerous different courts for the duration of his life.
His assemblage of portfolio included many articles on issues going from reasoning, religious philosophy, grammar, health, and law but is most well known his interpretations of Aristotle’s work specifically ‘The Republic’.
Aside from examining and interpreting Aristotle’s philosophical works, he wrote his own perspectives on logic in a broad collection entitled ‘The Incoherence of the Incoherence’. His other compositions on reasoning are ‘Fasl al-Maqal fi mama bayn al-Hikma wa al-Shariah min Ittisal’ and ‘Kitab al-Kashf a Manahij al-Adilla’.
The famous doctor created ‘Kulliyat’, which contained his broad understanding of gen. medicine.
Averroes was the first to suggest the idea of ‘inertia’ and he explained the power as “the rate at which work is done in changing the kinetic state of a material body”. He additionally clarified that the wonder behind rainbow arrangement is refraction and not a reflection as was famously accepted.
Studying law he composed a few books including ‘The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer’.
He wrote critiques for every one of Aristotle’s piece with the specific examination of per sentences. When he was not able to locate Aristotle’s work on legislative issues he swung to Plato. Averroes’ trusted numerous thoughts advocated by Plato like women equality.
His perspectives, that philosophy and religion are distinct ways to the same end, got negative feedback from the orthodox caliphate and a few of his works were scorched. From 1995-97, he was taboo to lecture his belief systems and enter Marrakesh.
Averroes most popular piece is the philosophy book titled ‘The Incoherence of the Incoherence’. This was his most imperative composition that resuscitated the Aristotelian rationality in the West, amid the twelfth and thirteenth century and a counter on Al-Ghazali’s work ‘The Incoherence of the Philosophers’ that condemned ‘Aristotelianism’.
Life and Legacy:
The prominent scholar confronted feedback for his perspectives on logic and religion from the individuals from ‘Asharite’ school of Islamic philosophy. Averroes’ creation was scorched and was prohibited by the caliphate to get into the city of Marrakesh, Morocco. But the year prior to his demise, the court order was lifted.
Averroes passed away on 10th of December 1198 in Marrakech and left the legacy of ‘Averroism’.
In 1997, a movie entitled ‘Fate’ directed by Youssef Chahine depicted the tale of Ibn Rushd in his film.
More than 10 years after the Kingdom of Morocco pulled out its ambassador from Pretoria, South Africa, Morocco and Southern Africa will resume diplomatic ties, announced South African President Jacob Zuma.
The kingdom recalled its 2004 ambassador from South Africa when then South Africa President Thabo Mbeki recognized a breakaway region in West Sahara where Morocco claims as part of its territory.
President Zuma stated that Morocco is an African nation and the need to have relations with the country. In fact, they never really had problems from their side because Morocco was the first to pullout diplomatic relations.
Zuma and King Mohammed VI met a week ago during the African Union-European Union summit.
During the meeting, Morocco expressed that even if there are different stand with regards to the subject of Western Sahara, both countries must have a pleasant relationship.
During President Zuma’s state of the nation address, he reaffirmed South Africa’s government position to support decolonization and self-determination for West Sahara.
Ever since 1975, the Kingdom of Morocco has taken control majority of Western Sahara’s phosphates and oil. In 1991, a ceasefire required a referendum on self-determination for Western Sahara, however, the vote did not happen.
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The Kingdom of Morocco received a warm welcome from the majority of African countries during the first plenary meeting of the 28th session of the African Union Summit conducted in the capital of Ethiopia.
African Commission president reported that 39 countries aired their support for Morocco’s comeback to the Union. The kingdom was welcomed enthusiastically by Africa as well as America and Europe.
Mr. Alpha Condé, President of Guinea and African Union President paid tribute to Morocco’s King Mohammed VI after delivering a positive message to Africa. Condé stated that the king spoke with this heart at a period when Africa must take its destiny into its own hands.
Furthermore, the European Union also looks forward to cooperating with Morocco and the African Union to enhance EU’s developing collaboration with Africa. As key partners, regional partnership and integration are vital for stability, prosperity, and peace.
To the European Union, Morocco’s coming back to the African Union binds together the entire content of Africa within its regional organization.
Countries acknowledge King Mohammed VI’s solid leadership
The U.S.A. applauds Morocco on returning to the African Union and salutes the king’s strong leadership. Pointing out that the kingdom’s solid leadership have made possible to get back to is place within the institutional family of the African continent.
The United States has expressed its belief that Morocco’s return to the African Union will get positive contributions to more political, economic and social integration in Africa and to the continent’s security and stability.
Likewise, Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda states that with Morocco’s unifying role, the return will tighten the African ranks, making it bigger and stronger. The kingdom is an asset that must put to good use to intensify their unity and solidarity.
Congo, France, and Spain also welcome the return. Romain Nadal, French Foreign Ministry spokesperson said that France welcomes Morocco’s reunion with African Union, the kingdom’s rightful place.
As Morocco’s neighbor country, Spain expressed its immense satisfaction on the decision.
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The Kingdom of Morocco’s return to the African Union opens up a greater chance for trade with countries in Africa. Part of the advantages of the country’s return into AU is the collaboration on varied commercial industries with African nations, most of which are developing faster in comparison with European states.
Analysts state that even though steady growth in economic trade with Sub-Saharan nations has been observed in the past years, this trade nevertheless symbolize a tiny proportion of Morocco’s total foreign market.
The latest African policy of Morocco compensates for the failed union of the Maghreb (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia). Because of the continuing dispute on Western Sahara, the union has failed to sustain its assurance of developing the trade amongst 5 countries. It has been recalled the several trips made by the Moroccan King to some countries in Africa as well as the signed agreements and treaties of Morocco with several African nations from 2000.
Financial businesses like banks have multiplied across Africa, having been established in over twenty countries. Royal Air Maroc, Morocco’s national airline is among Africa’s biggest commercial airline, with the city of Casablanca used as a transit spot of thousands of Sub Saharan Africans exploring throughout the continent.
The Kingdom has initiated a variety of remarkable political and business interests with their close African neighbors. Referring to analyst Liesl Louw-Vaudran of South Africa’s Institute of Security Studies, an international news release points out that Morocco’s advantage in relation to their return to AU is giving it more legality and influence to push on obtaining a government settlement with regards to West Sahara’s sovereignty issues.
Morocco and Africa’s economic collaboration will further advance the economic growth of the two countries gaining positive growth for their people respectively.
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The Kingdom of Morocco is the sole Maghreb nation that has long years of relations with Saharan African countries. It all began with the caravan routes that started from Morocco to reach black Africa.
The country has long been strongly committed to promoting peace and tolerance as evident in the presence of a variety of religious communities that have made Morocco their home.
Morocco king’s continuous yearly visits to African countries strengthened this economic partnership. Bilateral agreements between public and private sector were made which confirmed Morocco’s importance in Africa in developing the continent.
King Mohammed VI visits reinforce historical ties and collaboration projects in the fields of agriculture, tourism and trade have supported the demands of both populations.
Morocco’s strong desire to make South-South cooperation has been fully expressed by the king. For the past years, most of the country’s direct foreign investment of Morocco is in Africa. When the Ebola virus hit West Africa, Morocco was the only country to retain its airlines.
Launching fair and balanced economic relations took off in 3 stages. First is Morocco’s involvement in public businesses on varied projects connected to the improvement of basic infrastructures such as dams, roadworks, electricity, water management etc. Second, private companies got into service industry such as banking, mining etc with support from a dynamic financial stand. The present stage is manifested by the impulse of true economic strategy on regional integration in all aspect.
When this regional integration is realized, it will help open more opportunities and Africa’s potential to offer hope and improved lifestyle to its people. It will help the continent to back up and depend on its capacity by improving South-South partnerships and enabling the transfer of technology in common framework.
The Kingdom of Morocco has by now taken part in some initiatives in support of countries in Africa, which includes the debt deletion of some less developed countries and full exemption of customs duties of their product’s entry to Morocco’s market.
In its continuous efforts to solidify the cooperation with African partners, especially with West African Economic and Monetary Union and to abide to the Community of Sahel, Morocco is in negotiation for strategic partnership agreements which includes the continuous establishment of free trade areas with Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC).
These opportunities help direct foreign financing support on infrastructure projects in Africa while entrusting the management of these projects to Moroccan companies. Doing so further solidifies the economic relations of Morocco to other countries of the continent.
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